Assessment of the effect of pregnancy planning in women with type 1 diabetes treated by insulin pump

Lucie Mourou, Valeria Vallone, Eleonora Vania, Silvia Galasso, Cécile Brunet, Florent Fuchs, Federico Boscari, Francesco Cavallin, Daniela Bruttomesso, Eric Renard
Acta Diabetologica 2020 October 24

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have high risk of complications despite improved care based on technology advancements.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of pregnancy planning on fetal and maternal outcomes in T1D women treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII).

STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively assessed maternal and neonatal outcomes in T1D women using CSII who had planned or unplanned pregnancies between 2002 and 2018. The study was done in two European countries with similar sustained programs for pregnancy planning over the study period.

RESULTS: Data from 107 pregnancies and newborn babies were collected. Seventy-nine pregnancies (73.8%) had been planned. HbA1c was lower in planned versus unplanned pregnancy before and during all three trimesters of pregnancy (p < 0.0001). Pregnancy planning was associated with a reduction in the occurrence of iatrogenic preterm delivery (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23-0.95; p = 0.01). Risk reduction persisted after adjustments for mother's age above 40 years and preeclampsia. High HbA1c before or during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of iatrogenic preterm delivery (RR 3.05, 95% CI 1.78-5.22, p < 0.0001). Premature newborns needed intensive care more often than those at term (RR 3.10, 95% CI 1.53-4.31; p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy planning in T1D women using CSII was associated with better glucose control and decreased risk of iatrogenic preterm delivery. Hence preconception care also improves pregnancy outcome in patients using an advanced mode of insulin delivery. Planned pregnancies could further benefit from the use of new metrics of glucose control.

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