Journal of Intensive Care Medicine

Mojdeh S Heavner, Michael T McCurdy, Michael A Mazzeffi, Samuel M Galvagno, Kenichi A Tanaka, Jonathan H Chow
Vasodilatory shock is a serious medical condition that increases the morbidity and mortality of perioperative and critically ill patients. Norepinephrine is an established first-line therapy for this condition, but at high doses, it may lead to diminishing returns. Oftentimes, secondary noncatecholamine agents are required in those whose hypotension persists. Angiotensin II and vasopressin are both noncatecholamine agents available for the treatment of hypotension in vasodilatory shock. They have distinct modes of action and unique pharmacologic properties when compared to norepinephrine...
March 30, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
En-Pei Lee, Lu-Lu Zhao, Shao-Hsuan Hsia, Oi-Wa Chan, Chia-Ying Lin, Ya-Ting Su, Jainn-Jim Lin, Han-Ping Wu
BACKGROUND: Vasoplegia is vascular hyporesponsiveness to vasopressors and is an important phenomenon in children with refractory septic shock. This study aimed to develop an objective formula correlated with vasoplegia and evaluate the predictive power for mortality in children with refractory septic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed children with refractory septic shock admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and monitored their hemodynamics via a pulse index continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) system...
March 25, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Matthew A Warner, Daryl J Kor, Ryan D Frank, Victor D Dinglas, Pedro Mendez-Tellez, Cheryl R Dennison Himmelfarb, Carl B Shanholtz, Curtis B Storlie, Dale M Needham
OBJECTIVE: Anemia is common during critical illness and often persists after hospital discharge; however, its potential association with physical outcomes after critical illness is unclear. Our objective was to assess the associations between hemoglobin at intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital discharge with physical status at 3-month follow-up in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) survivors. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a multisite prospective cohort study of 195 mechanically ventilated ARDS survivors from 13 ICUs at 4 teaching hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland...
March 24, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Suresh Kumar Angurana, Arun Bansal, Jayashree Muralidharan, Ritu Aggarwal, Sunit Singhi
OBJECTIVE: To study the baseline cytokine levels and their relation with the severity of illness and mortality in critically ill children with severe sepsis. DESIGN: Subgroup analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary level teaching hospital in India. PATIENTS: Fifty children with severe sepsis aged 3 months to 12 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood was collected at admission for estimation of pro-inflammatory (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-12p70, IL-17, and tumor necrotic factor α [TNF-α]) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and transforming growth factor β1 [TGF-β1]) cytokines...
March 24, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Tolga Dittrich, Stephan Marsch, Stephan Rüegg, Gian Marco De Marchis, Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Raoul Sutter
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Data regarding delirium in patients presenting with infections of the central nervous system, such as meningitis and/or encephalitis (ME), are scarce. We aimed to determine the frequency and early predictors of delirium in the acute phase of ME. METHODS: We assessed clinical, radiologic, and laboratory data of patients with ME at a Swiss academic medical center from 2011 to 2017. The highest Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) score was assessed within 24 hours around lumbar puncture...
March 20, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Emanuele Russo, Domenico Pietro Santonastaso, Emiliano Gamberini, Alessandro Circelli, Costanza Martino, Vanni Agnoletti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Andrés Fabricio Caballero-Lozada, Kapil Laxman Nanwani, Favio Pavón, Andrés Zorrilla-Vaca, Carolina Zorrilla-Vaca
Ultrasonography is part of the multimodal monitoring of the neurocritical patient. Through transcranial color Doppler ultrasound, carotid-color Doppler ultrasound, and ocular ultrasound it is possible to diagnose and monitor a multitude of pathological conditions, such as cerebrovascular events, vasospasm, Terson syndrome, carotid atheromatosis, and brain death. Furthermore, these techniques enable the monitoring of the intracranial pressure, the cerebral perfusion pressure, and the midline deviation, which allows us to understand the patient's neurocritical pathology at their bedside, in a noninvasive way...
March 10, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Mitchell S Buckley, Sumit K Agarwal, Roxanne Garcia-Orr, Rajeev Saggar, Robert MacLaren
PURPOSE: Several reports have demonstrated similar effects on oxygenation between inhaled epoprostenol (iEPO) compared to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Previous studies directly comparing oxygenation and clinical outcomes between iEPO and iNO exclusively in an adult ARDS patient population utilized a weight-based dosing strategy. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and economic impact between iNO and fixed-dosed iEPO for ARDS in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
March 5, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
David C Miller, Christian Bime, Sairam Partharsarathy, Jarrod M Mosier
High-flow nasal oxygen systems are rapidly being adopted as an initial noninvasive treatment for acute respiratory failure. However, the term "high-flow nasal cannula" is nonspecific and leads to imprecise communication between physicians, respiratory therapists, and nurses with the potential for patient harm. In this viewpoint and a brief review of the technology, we argue for a change in nomenclature in order to reduce the chance for future clinical, administrative, and research misunderstanding surrounding high-flow nasal oxygen systems...
February 27, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Julie M Thomson, Hanh H Huynh, Holly M Drone, Jessica L Jantzer, Albert K Tsai, Jon T Jancik
BACKGROUND: Evidence for tranexamic acid (TXA) in the pharmacologic management of trauma is largely derived from data in adults. Guidance on the use of TXA in pediatric patients comes from studies evaluating its use in cardiac and orthopedic surgery. There is minimal data describing TXA safety and efficacy in pediatric trauma. The purpose of this study is to describe the use of TXA in the management of pediatric trauma and to evaluate its efficacy and safety end points. METHODS: This retrospective, observational analysis of pediatric trauma admissions at Hennepin County Medical Center from August 2011 to March 2019 compares patients who did and did not receive TXA...
February 24, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Frank Stachulski, Bob Siegerink, Julian Bösel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Critically ill patients require a careful approach for prognosis and decision-making. The German health legislation aims to strengthen the role of advance directives (ADs) and health-care proxies (HCPs). Their impact within a dedicated neurocritical care setting is unknown. This study aimed to assess the practice of withdrawal or withholding of life-sustaining therapy (WOLST) in a German neurointensive care unit (NICU) focusing on whether AD or HCP is associated with timing and treatment intensity...
February 24, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Nicholas W Lange, David M Salerno, Karen Berger, Melissa M Cushing, Robert S Brown
Patients with varying degrees of hepatic dysfunction often present with presumed bleeding diathesis based on interpretation of routine measures of coagulation (prothrombin time [PT], international normalized ratio [INR], and activated partial thromboplastin time). However, standard markers of coagulation do not reflect the actual bleeding risk in this population and may lead to inappropriate administration of hemostatic agents and blood products. The concept of "rebalanced hemostasis" explains both the risk of bleeding and clotting seen in patients with liver dysfunction...
February 21, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Elina Varis, Ville Pettilä, Erika Wilkman
BACKGROUND: Circulatory shock affects every third patient in intensive care units and is associated with high mortality. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) could serve as a means for monitoring tissue perfusion in circulatory shock. PURPOSE: To assess the evidence of NIRS monitoring in circulatory shock, we conducted a systematic review of the literature. METHODS: The study protocol was registered in International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO)...
February 20, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Natalie Achamallah, Jeffrey Fried, Rebecca Love, Yuri Matusov, Rohit Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Absence of pupillary light reflex (PLR) is a well-studied indicator of poor neurologic recovery after cardiac arrest. Interpretation of absent PLR is difficult in patients with hypothermia or hypotension, or who have electrolyte or acid-base disturbances. Additionally, many studies exclude patients who receive epinephrine or atropine from their analysis on the basis that these drugs are thought to abolish the PLR. This observational cohort study assessed for presence or absence of PLR in in-hospital cardiac arrest patients who received epinephrine with or without atropine during advanced cardiac life support and achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC)...
February 18, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Areesha Alam, Sarika Gupta
PURPOSE: To investigate association of static and dynamic lactate indices with early mortality (within 48 hours of admission), as well as need for vasopressors and mechanical ventilation in pediatric severe sepsis/shock. To explore optimal cutoffs of lactate indices. We hypothesized that dynamic indices are superior to static indices in predicting early mortality. METHODS: This prospective cohort study involved children (aged <14 years) admitted in emergency department, tertiary care teaching hospital in North India with severe sepsis/shock (2015-2016)...
February 11, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Tetsuro Maeda, Janvi Paralkar, Toshiki Kuno, Paru Patrawalla
BACKGROUND: Lactate clearance has become important in the management of sepsis. However, factors unrelated to sepsis-induced hyperlactatemia, including β-2 adrenergic agonists, can interfere with lactate clearance. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of inhaled albuterol with lactate clearance in patients with sepsis. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study. Adult patients with sepsis diagnosed in the emergency department from May 2015 to May 2016 with initial lactate levels >2 mmol/L and serial lactate measurements 2 to 6 hours apart were included...
January 22, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Kazuya Sakai, Hideo Wada, Yuki Nakatsuka, Masayuki Kubo, Masaki Hayakawa, Masanori Matsumoto
INTRODUCTIONS: Patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) show no severe abnormalities in coagulation or fibrinolysis. However, the exact extent of the abnormalities is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study analyzed 138 patients with acquired TTP and 46 patients with septic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) who were included in a Japanese registry. Complete blood cell counts and 8 coagulation or fibrinolysis parameters were compared between the 2 groups...
January 22, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Christian Grant, Jeremy B Richards, Michael Frakes, Jason Cohen, Susan R Wilcox
Right ventricular (RV) failure is the inability of the RV to maintain sufficient cardiac output in the setting of adequate preload, due to either intrinsic injury to the RV or increased afterload. Medical treatment of RV failure should include optimizing preload, augmenting contractility with vasopressors and inotropes, and considering inhaled pulmonary vasodilators. However, when medical therapies are insufficient, mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is needed to maintain systemic and RV perfusion. The data on MCS for isolated RV failure are limited, but extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) appears to be the most efficient and effective modality...
January 22, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Alyson Takaoka, Kimia Honarmand, Meredith Vanstone, Benjamin Tam, Orla M Smith, Andrew Baker, Allana LeBlanc, Marilyn Swinton, Thanh H Neville, France J Clarke, Jennifer Hancock, Sarah McMullen, Maureen O Meade, Trudy Rose, Samantha Arora, Deborah J Cook
PURPOSE: The 3 Wishes Project (3WP) promotes holistic end-of-life care in the intensive care unit (ICU) to honor dying patients, support families, and encourage clinician compassion. Organ donation is a wish that is sometimes made by, or on behalf of, critically ill patients. Our objective was to describe the interface between the 3WP and organ donation as experienced by families, clinicians, and organ donation coordinators. METHODS: In a multicenter evaluation of the 3WP in 4 Canadian ICUs, we conducted a thematic analysis of transcripts from interviews and focus groups with clinicians, organ donation coordinators, and families of dying or died patients for whom donation was considered...
January 21, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Bo Zheng, Peter M Reardon, Shannon M Fernando, Colleen Webber, Kednapa Thavorn, Laura H Thompson, Peter Tanuseputro, Laveena Munshi, Kwadwo Kyeremanteng
INTRODUCTION: Cancer is associated with significant health-care expenditure, but few studies have examined the cost of patients with cancer in the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to describe the costs and outcomes of patients admitted to the ICU with cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted between 2011 and 2016 to 2 tertiary-care ICUs. We included patients with a cancer-related most responsible diagnosis using International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision , Canada codes...
January 17, 2020: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
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