Andreas Rillig, Christina Magnussen, Ann-Kathrin Ozga, Anna Suling, Axel Brandes, Günter Breithardt, A John Camm, Harry J G M Crijns, Lars Eckardt, Arif Elvan, Andreas Goette, Michele Gulizia, Laurent Haegeli, Hein Heidbuchel, Karl-Heinz Kuck, Andre Ng, Lukasz Szumowski, Isabelle van Gelder, Karl Wegscheider, Paulus Kirchhof
Background: Even on optimal therapy, many patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation experience cardiovascular complications. Additional treatments are needed to reduce these events, especially in patients with heart failure and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF). Methods: This prespecified subanalysis of the randomized EAST - AFNET 4 trial assessed the effect of systematic, early rhythm control therapy (ERC; using antiarrhythmic drugs or catheter ablation) compared to usual care (UC, allowing rhythm control therapy to improve symptoms) on the two primary outcomes of the trial and on selected secondary outcomes in patients with heart failure, defined as heart failure symptoms NYHA II-III or left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <50%...
July 30, 2021: Circulation
Sung-Min Cho, J Hunter Mehaffey, Susan L Myers, Ryan S Cantor, Randall C Starling, James K Kirklin, Jeffrey P Jacobs, John Kern, Ken Uchino, Leora Yarboro
Background: Ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accidents (ICVA and HCVA, respectively) remain common among patients with centrifugal-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs), despite improvements in survival and device longevity. Therefore, the incidence of neurological adverse events (NAEs) associated with two contemporary CF-LVADs, the Abbott HeartMate3® (HM3) and the Medtronic HeartWare™ HVAD® (HVAD), were compared. Methods: Using the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (Intermacs), we collected data on adult patients who received a CF-LVAD as a primary isolated implant between 1/1/2017 and 9/30/2019...
July 28, 2021: Circulation
Michael H Criqui, Kunihiro Matsushita, Victor Aboyans, Connie N Hess, Caitlin W Hicks, Tak W Kwan, Mary M McDermott, Sanjay Misra, Francisco Ujueta
Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects >230 million adults worldwide and is associated with increased risk of various adverse clinical outcomes (other cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease and stroke and leg outcomes such as amputation). Despite its prevalence and clinical importance, PAD has been historically underappreciated by health care professionals and patients. This underappreciation seems multifactorial (eg, limited availability of the first-line diagnostic test, the ankle-brachial index, in clinics; incorrect perceptions that a leg vascular disease is not fatal and that the diagnosis of PAD would not necessarily change clinical practice)...
July 28, 2021: Circulation
Chenfeng Mao, Zihan Ma, Yiting Jia, Weihao Li, Nan Xie, Guizhen Zhao, Baihui Ma, Fang Yu, Jinpeng Sun, Yuan Zhou, Qinghua Cui, Yi Fu, Wei Kong
Background: How the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment modulates the contractile phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and confers vascular homeostasis remains elusive. Methods: To explore the key ECM proteins in the maintenance of the contractile phenotype of VSMCs, we applied protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis to explore novel ECM proteins associated with the VSMC phenotype. By combining in vitro and in vivo genetic mice vascular injury model, we identified nidogen-2, a basement membrane (BM) glycoprotein, as a key ECM protein for maintenance of vascular smooth muscle cell identity...
July 28, 2021: Circulation
Biykem Bozkurt, Ishan Kamat, Peter J Hotez
Myocarditis has been recognized as a rare complication of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccinations, especially in young adult and adolescent males. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), myocarditis/pericarditis rates are approximately 12.6 cases per million doses of second dose mRNA vaccine among 12-39-year-olds. In reported cases, patients with myocarditis invariably presented with chest pain, usually 2-3 days after a second dose of mRNA vaccination and had elevated cardiac troponin levels...
July 20, 2021: Circulation
Meredith A Redd, Sarah E Scheuer, Natalie J Saez, Yusuke Yoshikawa, Han Sheng Chiu, Ling Gao, Mark Hicks, Jeanette E Villanueva, Yashutosh Joshi, Chun Yuen Chow, Gabriel Cuellar-Partida, Jason N Peart, Louise E See Hoe, Xiaoli Chen, Yuliangzi Sun, Jacky Y Suen, Robert J Hatch, Ben Rollo, Mubarak A H Alzubaidi, Snezana Maljevic, Gregory A Quaife-Ryan, James E Hudson, Enzo R Porrello, Melanie Y White, Stuart J Cordwell, John F Fraser, Steven Petrou, Melissa E Reichelt, Walter G Thomas, Glenn F King, Peter S Macdonald, Nathan J Palpant
Background: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is one of the major risk factors implicated in morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. During cardiac ischemia, the build-up of acidic metabolites results in decreased intracellular and extracellular pH that can reach as low as 6.0-6.5. The resulting tissue acidosis exacerbates ischemic injury and significantly impacts cardiac function. Methods: We used genetic and pharmacological methods to investigate the role of acid sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) in cardiac IRI at the cellular and whole organ level...
July 15, 2021: Circulation
Jules Mesnier, Gregory Ducrocq, Nicolas Danchin, Roberto Ferrari, Ian Ford, Jean-Claude Tardif, Michal Tendera, Kim M Fox, Philippe Gabriel Steg
Background: Although angina is common in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), limited data are available on its prevalence, natural evolution, and outcomes in the era of effective cardiovascular drugs and widespread use of coronary revascularization. Methods: Using data from 32 691 patients with stable CAD from the prospective observational CLARIFY registry, anginal status was mapped each year in patients without new coronary revascularization or new myocardial infarction. The use of medical interventions in the year preceding angina resolution was explored...
July 15, 2021: Circulation
Laurienne Edgar, Naveed Akbar, Adam T Braithwaite, Thomas Krausgruber, Héctor Gallart-Ayala, Jade Bailey, Alastair L Corbin, Tariq E Khoyratty, Joshua T Chai, Mohammad Alkhalil, André F Rendeiro, Klemen Ziberna, Ritu Arya, Thomas J Cahill, Christoph Bock, Jurga Laurencikiene, Mark J Crabtree, Madeleine E Lemieux, Niels P Riksen, Mihai G Netea, Craig E Wheelock, Keith M Channon, Mikael Rydén, Irina A Udalova, Ricardo Carnicer, Robin P Choudhury
Background: Cardiovascular risk in diabetes remains elevated despite glucose lowering therapies. We hypothesised that hyperglycaemia induces trained immunity in macrophages, promoting persistent pro-atherogenic characteristics. Methods: Bone marrow derived macrophages from control and mice with diabetes were grown in physiological glucose (5 mM) and subject to RNA-sequencing (n=6), ATAC-sequencing (n=6) and ChIP-sequencing (n=6) for determination of hyperglycaemia-induced trained immunity. Bone marrow transplantation from mice with (n=9) or without (n=6) diabetes into [normoglycaemic] Ldlr -/- mice was used to assess its functional significance in vivo ...
July 13, 2021: Circulation
Laxmi S Mehta, Mitchell S V Elkind, Stephan Achenbach, Fausto J Pinto, Athena Poppas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2021: Circulation
Aniruddh P Patel, Minxian Wang, Uri Kartoun, Kenney Ng, Amit V Khera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2021: Circulation
Namratha R Kandula, Alka M Kanaya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2021: Circulation
Hui Qi, Hang Liu, Soni Savai Pullamsetti, Stefan Günther, Carsten Kuenne, Ann Atzberger, Natascha Sommer, Stefan Hadzic, Andreas Günther, Norbert Weissmann, Yonggang Zhou, Xuejun Yuan, Thomas Braun
Background: The etiology of life-threatening cardiopulmonary diseases such as Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) originates from a complex interplay of environmental factors and genetic predispositions, which is not fully understood. Likewise, little is known about developmental abnormalities or epigenetic dysregulations that might predispose for PH or COPD in adult individuals. Methods: To identify pathology-associated epigenetic alteration in diseased lung tissues, we screened a cohort of human PH and COPD patients for changes of histone modifications by immunofluorescence staining...
July 12, 2021: Circulation
Carl G Streed, Lauren B Beach, Billy A Caceres, Nadia L Dowshen, Kerrie L Moreau, Monica Mukherjee, Tonia Poteat, Asa Radix, Sari L Reisner, Vineeta Singh
There is growing evidence that people who are transgender and gender diverse (TGD) are impacted by disparities across a variety of cardiovascular risk factors compared with their peers who are cisgender. Prior literature has characterized disparities in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as a result of a higher prevalence of health risk behaviors. Mounting research has revealed that cardiovascular risk factors at the individual level likely do not fully account for increased risk in cardiovascular health disparities among people who are TGD...
July 8, 2021: Circulation
Andreas Schober, Richard M Blay, Saffiyeh Saboor Maleki, Farima Zahedi, Anja E Winklmaier, Mati Y Kakar, Isabelle M Baatsch, Mengyu Zhu, Claudia Geißler, Anja E Fusco, Anna Eberlein, Nan Li, Remco T A Megens, Ramin Banafsche, Jörg Kumbrink, Christian Weber, Maliheh Nazari-Jahantigh
Background: The necrotic core partly formed by ineffective efferocytosis increases the risk of an atherosclerotic plaque rupture. microRNAs contribute to necrotic core formation by regulating efferocytosis and macrophage apoptosis. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture occurs at increased frequency in the early morning, indicating diurnal changes in plaque vulnerability. Although circadian rhythms play a role in atherosclerosis, the molecular clock output pathways that control plaque composition and rupture susceptibility are unclear...
July 8, 2021: Circulation
Qiang Zhang, Matthew K Burrage, Elena Lukaschuk, Mayooran Shanmuganathan, Iulia A Popescu, Chrysovalantou Nikolaidou, Rebecca Mills, Konrad Werys, Evan Hann, Ahmet Barutcu, Suleyman D Polat, Michael Salerno, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Raymond Y Kwong, Hugh C Watkins, Christopher M Kramer, Stefan Neubauer, Vanessa M Ferreira, Stefan K Piechnik
Background: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is the gold standard for non-invasive myocardial tissue characterization, but requires intravenous contrast agent administration. It is highly desired to develop a contrast-agent-free technology to replace LGE for faster and cheaper CMR scans. Methods: A CMR Virtual Native Enhancement (VNE) imaging technology was developed using artificial intelligence. The deep learning model for generating VNE uses multiple streams of convolutional neural networks to exploit and enhance the existing signals in native T1-maps (pixel-wise maps of tissue T1 relaxation times) and cine imaging of cardiac structure and function, presenting them as LGE-equivalent images...
July 7, 2021: Circulation
Francesca Leo, Tatsiana Suvorava, Sophia K Heuser, Junjie Li, Anthea LoBue, Frederik Barbarino, Eugenia Piragine, Rebekka Schneckmann, Beate Hutzler, Miranda E Good, Bernadette O Fernandez, Lukas Vornholz, Stephen Rogers, Allan Doctor, Maria Grandoch, Johannes Stegbauer, Eddie Weitzberg, Martin Feelisch, Jon O Lundberg, Brant E Isakson, Malte Kelm, Miriam M Cortese-Krott
Background: Current paradigms suggest that nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial cells (ECs) via endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the vessel wall is the primary regulator of blood flow and blood pressure. However, red blood cells (RBCs) also carry a catalytically active eNOS, but its role is controversial and remains undefined. This study aimed to elucidate the functional significance of red cell eNOS compared to EC eNOS for vascular hemodynamics and NO metabolism. Methods: We generated tissue-specific "loss-" and "gain-of-function" models for eNOS by using cell-specific Cre-induced gene inactivation or reactivation...
July 7, 2021: Circulation
Yuk M Law, Ashwin K Lal, Sharon Chen, Daniela Čiháková, Leslie T Cooper, Shriprasad Deshpande, Justin Godown, Lars Grosse-Wortmann, Joshua D Robinson, Jeffrey A Towbin
Myocarditis remains a clinical challenge in pediatrics. Originally, it was recognized at autopsy before the application of endomyocardial biopsy, which led to a histopathology-based diagnosis such as in the Dallas criteria. Given the invasive and low-sensitivity nature of endomyocardial biopsy, its diagnostic focus shifted to a reliance on clinical suspicion. With the advances of cardiac magnetic resonance, an examination of the whole heart in vivo has gained acceptance in the pursuit of a diagnosis of myocarditis...
July 7, 2021: Circulation
Stefan J Schunk, Sarah Triem, David Schmit, Stephen Zewinger, Tamim Sarakpi, Ellen Becker, Gregor Hütter, Selina Wrublewsky, Fabienne Küting, Mathias Hohl, Dalia Alansary, Leticia Prates Roma, Peter Lipp, Julia Möllmann, Michael Lehrke, Matthias W Laschke, Michael D Menger, Rafael Kramann, Peter Boor, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Winfried März, Michael Böhm, Ulrich Laufs, Barbara A Niemeyer, Danilo Fliser, Emmanuel Ampofo, Thimoteus Speer
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are highly prevalent, aggravate each other, and account for substantial mortality. Both conditions are characterized by activation of the innate immune system. The alarmin IL-1α is expressed in a variety of cell types promoting (sterile) systemic inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of IL-1α in mediating inflammation in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and CKD. Methods: We assessed the expression of IL-1α on the surface of monocytes from patients with AMI and patients with CKD and determined its association with atherosclerotic CVD events during follow-up in an explorative clinical study...
July 1, 2021: Circulation
Sripal Bangalore, Gregory W Barsness, George D Dangas, Morton J Kern, Sunil V Rao, Linda Shore-Lesserson, Jacqueline E Tamis-Holland
Cardiac catheterization procedures have rapidly evolved and expanded in scope and techniques over the past few decades. However, although some practices have emerged based on evidence, many traditions have persisted based on beliefs and theoretical concerns. The aim of this review is to highlight common preprocedure, intraprocedure, and postprocedure catheterization laboratory practices where evidence has accumulated over the past few decades to support or discount traditionally held practices.
June 30, 2021: Circulation
Hyojin Park, Jessica Furtado, Mathilde Poulet, Minhwan Chung, Sanguk Yun, Sungwoon Lee, William C Sessa, Claudio A Franco, Martin A Schwartz, Anne Eichmann
Background: Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is an endothelial transmembrane serine threonine kinase receptor for BMP family ligands that plays a critical role in cardiovascular development and pathology. Loss-of-function mutations in the ALK1 gene cause type 2 hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), a devastating disorder that leads to arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Here we show that ALK1 controls endothelial cell polarization against the direction of blood flow and flow-induced endothelial migration from veins through capillaries into arterioles...
June 29, 2021: Circulation
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