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International Journal of Molecular Sciences

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781713/translational-control-using-an-expanded-genetic-code
#1
REVIEW
Yusuke Kato
A bio-orthogonal and unnatural substance, such as an unnatural amino acid (Uaa), is an ideal regulator to control target gene expression in a synthetic gene circuit. Genetic code expansion technology has achieved Uaa incorporation into ribosomal synthesized proteins in vivo at specific sites designated by UAG stop codons. This site-specific Uaa incorporation can be used as a controller of target gene expression at the translational level by conditional read-through of internal UAG stop codons. Recent advances in optimization of site-specific Uaa incorporation for translational regulation have enabled more precise control over a wide range of novel important applications, such as Uaa-auxotrophy-based biological containment, live-attenuated vaccine, and high-yield zero-leakage expression systems, in which Uaa translational control is exclusively used as an essential genetic element...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781701/ljelsr-a-strengthened-version-of-jelsr-for-feature-selection-and-clustering
#2
Sha-Sha Wu, Mi-Xiao Hou, Chun-Mei Feng, Jin-Xing Liu
Feature selection and sample clustering play an important role in bioinformatics. Traditional feature selection methods separate sparse regression and embedding learning. Later, to effectively identify the significant features of the genomic data, Joint Embedding Learning and Sparse Regression (JELSR) is proposed. However, since there are many redundancy and noise values in genomic data, the sparseness of this method is far from enough. In this paper, we propose a strengthened version of JELSR by adding the L₁-norm constraint on the regularization term based on a previous model, and call it LJELSR, to further improve the sparseness of the method...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781689/loss-of-c-ebp%C3%AE-exacerbates-radiation-induced-cognitive-decline-in-aged-mice-due-to-impaired-oxidative-stress-response
#3
Sudip Banerjee, Tyler Alexander, Debajyoti Majumdar, Thomas Groves, Frederico Kiffer, Jing Wang, Akshita Gorantla, Antiño R Allen, Snehalata A Pawar
Aging is characterized by increased inflammation and deterioration of the cellular stress responses such as the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium, DNA damage repair fidelity, and telomeric attrition. All these factors contribute to the increased radiation sensitivity in the elderly as shown by epidemiological studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. There is a global increase in the aging population, who may be at increased risk of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) as part of cancer therapy or accidental exposure...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781686/identification-and-evaluation-of-inhibitors-of-lipase-from-malassezia-restricta-using-virtual-high-throughput-screening-and-molecular-dynamics-studies
#4
Shahid Ali, Faez Iqbal Khan, Taj Mohammad, Dongming Lan, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan, Yonghua Wang
Recent studies revealed the role of lipase in the pathogenicity of Malassezia restricta in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis (D/SD). The lipase from M. restricta (Mrlip1) is considered a potential target for dandruff therapy. In this work, we performed structure-based virtual screening in Zinc database to find the natural bioactive inhibitors of Mrlip1. We identified three compounds bearing superior affinity and specificity from the Traditional Chinese Medicine database (~60,000 compounds), and their binding patterns with Mrlip1 were analyzed in detail...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781658/transcriptome-analyses-provide-novel-insights-into-heat-stress-responses-in-chieh-qua-benincasa-hispida-cogn-var-chieh-qua-how
#5
Min Wang, Biao Jiang, Wenrui Liu, Yu'e Lin, Zhaojun Liang, Xiaoming He, Qingwu Peng
Temperature rising caused by global warming has imposed significant negative effects on crop qualities and yields. To get the well-known molecular mechanism upon the higher temperature, we carefully analyzed the RNA sequencing-based transcriptomic responses of two contrasting chieh-qua genotypes: A39 (heat-tolerant) and H5 (heat-sensitive). In this study, twelve cDNA libraries generated from A39 and H5 were performed with a transcriptome assay under normal and heat stress conditions, respectively. A total of 8705 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected under normal conditions (3676 up-regulated and 5029 down-regulated) and 1505 genes under heat stress (914 up-regulated and 591 down-regulated), respectively...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781644/carnosol-as-a-nrf2-activator-improves-endothelial-barrier-function-through-antioxidative-mechanisms
#6
Xi Li, Qiao Zhang, Ning Hou, Jing Li, Min Liu, Sha Peng, Yuxin Zhang, Yinzhen Luo, Bowen Zhao, Shifeng Wang, Yanling Zhang, Yanjiang Qiao
Oxidative stress is the main pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy, which can cause microvascular endothelial cell damage and destroy vascular barrier. In this study, it is found that carnosol protects human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) through antioxidative mechanisms. First, we measured the antioxidant activity of carnosol. We showed that carnosol pretreatment suppressed tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cell viability, affected the production of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increased the produce of nitric oxide (NO)...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781642/toxicological-evaluation-of-sio%C3%A2-nanoparticles-by-zebrafish-embryo-toxicity-test
#7
Sandra Vranic, Yasuhito Shimada, Sahoko Ichihara, Masayuki Kimata, Wenting Wu, Toshio Tanaka, Sonja Boland, Lang Tran, Gaku Ichihara
As the use of nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing, the potential toxicity and behavior of NPs in living systems need to be better understood. Our goal was to evaluate the developmental toxicity and bio-distribution of two different sizes of fluorescently-labeled SiO₂ NPs, 25 and 115 nm, with neutral surface charge or with different surface functionalization, rendering them positively or negatively charged, in order to predict the effect of NPs in humans. We performed a zebrafish embryo toxicity test (ZFET) by exposing the embryos to SiO₂ NPs starting from six hours post fertilization (hpf)...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781640/from-ecology-to-biotechnology-study-of-the-defense-strategies-of-algae-and-halophytes-from-trapani-saltworks-nw-sicily-with-a-focus-on-antioxidants-and-antimicrobial-properties
#8
Concetta Maria Messina, Giuseppe Renda, Vincenzo Alessandro Laudicella, Rozenn Trepos, Marilyne Fauchon, Claire Hellio, Andrea Santulli
This study aimed at the characterization of the antioxidant power of polyphenol extracts (PE) obtained from the algae Cystoseira foeniculacea (CYS) (Phaeophyta) and from the halophyte Halocnemum strobilaceum (HAL), growing in the solar saltworks of western Sicily (Italy), and at the evaluation of their anti-microfouling properties, in order to correlate these activities to defense strategies in extreme environmental conditions. The antioxidant properties were assessed in the PE based on the total antioxidant activity test and the reducing power test; the anti-microfouling properties of the two PE were evaluated by measuring the growth inhibition of marine fish and shellfish pathogen bacteria as well as marine surface fouling bacteria and microalgae exposed to the fractions...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781638/the-effectiveness-of-vitamin-e-treatment-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Ana Lloret, Daniel Esteve, Paloma Monllor, Ana Cervera-Ferri, Angeles Lloret
Vitamin E was proposed as treatment for Alzheimer's disease many years ago. However, the effectiveness of the drug is not clear. Vitamin E is an antioxidant and neuroprotector and it has anti-inflammatory and hypocholesterolemic properties, driving to its importance for brain health. Moreover, the levels of vitamin E in Alzheimer's disease patients are lower than in non-demented controls. Thus, vitamin E could be a good candidate to have beneficial effects against Alzheimer's. However, evidence is consistent with a limited effectiveness of vitamin E in slowing progression of dementia; the information is mixed and inconclusive...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781626/hippocampal-lmna-gene-expression-is-increased-in-late-stage-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Iván Méndez-López, Idoia Blanco-Luquin, Javier Sánchez-Ruiz de Gordoa, Amaya Urdánoz-Casado, Miren Roldán, Blanca Acha, Carmen Echavarri, Victoria Zelaya, Ivonne Jericó, Maite Mendioroz
Lamins are fibrillary proteins that are crucial in maintaining nuclear shape and function. Recently, B-type lamin dysfunction has been linked to tauopathies. However, the role of A-type lamin in neurodegeneration is still obscure. Here, we examined A-type and B-type lamin expression levels by RT-qPCR in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and controls in the hippocampus, the core of tau pathology in the brain. LMNA , LMNB1, and LMNB2 genes showed moderate mRNA levels in the human hippocampus with highest expression for the LMNA gene...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781619/insight-into-structural-characteristics-of-protein-substrate-interaction-in-pimaricin-thioesterase
#11
Shuobing Fan, Rufan Wang, Chen Li, Linquan Bai, Yi-Lei Zhao, Ting Shi
As a polyene antibiotic of great pharmaceutical significance, pimaricin has been extensively studied to enhance its productivity and effectiveness. In our previous studies, pre-reaction state (PRS) has been validated as one of the significant conformational categories before macrocyclization, and is critical to mutual recognition and catalytic preparation in thioesterase (TE)-catalyzed systems. In our study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted on pimaricin TE-polyketide complex and PRS, as well as pre-organization state (POS), a molecular conformation possessing a pivotal intra-molecular hydrogen bond, were detected...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781615/ige-downregulates-pten-through-microrna-21-5p-and-stimulates-airway-smooth-muscle-cell-remodeling
#12
Lei Fang, Xinggang Wang, Qingzhu Sun, Eleni Papakonstantinou, Chongteck S'ng, Michael Tamm, Daiana Stolz, Michael Roth
The patho-mechanism leading to airway wall remodeling in allergic asthma is not well understood and remodeling is resistant to therapies. This study assessed the effect of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the absence of allergens on human primary airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) remodeling in vitro. ASMCs were obtained from five allergic asthma patients and five controls. Proliferation was determined by direct cell counts, mitochondrial activity by expression of cytochrome c, protein expression by immunoblotting and immuno-fluorescence, cell migration by microscopy imaging, and collagen deposition by cell based ELISA and RNA expression by real time PCR...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781614/involvement-of-actin-cytoskeletal-components-in-breast-cancer-cell-fusion-with-human-mesenchymal-stroma-stem-like-cells
#13
Catharina Melzer, Juliane von der Ohe, Ralf Hass
Cell fusion as a rare event was observed following the co-culture of human MDA-MB-231cherry breast cancer cells or benign neoplastic MCF10Acherry breast epithelial cells together with different mesenchymal stroma/stem-like cells (MSCGFP ) cultures, respectively, resulting in the generation of double-fluorescing hybrid cells. Analysis of potential molecular mechanisms for the formation of cancer hybrid cells revealed cytoskeletal components, including F-actin. Thus, a sub-lethal concentration of cytochalasin D, which blocks elongation of actin filaments, was able to significantly reduce cancer hybrid cell formation...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781611/insulin-resistance-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-brain-what-s-new
#14
REVIEW
Mateusz Maciejczyk, Ewa Żebrowska, Adrian Chabowski
The latest studies have indicated a strong relationship between systemic insulin resistance (IR) and higher incidence of neurodegeneration, dementia, and mild cognitive impairment. Although some of these abnormalities could be explained by chronic hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidaemia, and/or prolonged whole-body inflammation, the key role is attributed to the neuronal redox imbalance and oxidative damage. In this mini review, we provide a schematic overview of intracellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial abnormalities in the IR brain...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781605/adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-modulates-the-immune-response-of-allergic-rhinitis-in-a-rat-model
#15
Nesrine Ebrahim, Yasser Mohammad Hassan Mandour, Ayman Samir Farid, Ebtesam Nafie, Amira Zaky Mohamed, Miriam Safwat, Radwa Taha, Dina Sabry, Safwa M Sorour, Ahmed Refae
This study was designed to investigate the potential effects and underlying mechanism of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on allergic inflammation compared to Montelukast as an antileukotriene drug in a rat model of allergic rhinitis (AR). The effect of MSCs was evaluated in albino rats that were randomly divided into four (control, AR, AR + Montelukast, and AR + MSCs) groups. Rats of AR group were sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with daily nasal drops of OVA diluted in sterile physiological saline (50 μL/nostril, 100 mg/mL, 10% OVA) from day 15 to day 21 of treatment with/without Montelukast (1 h before each challenge) or MSCs I/P injection (1 × 10⁶ MCSs; weekly for three constitutive weeks)...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781603/useful-flies
#16
EDITORIAL
Beat Suter
Many molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive the physiological functions of cells or control the development of an animal are well conserved between vertebrates and insects [...].
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781602/chemical-constituents-with-leishmanicidal-activity-from-a-pink-yellow-cultivar-of-lantana-camara-var-aculeata-l-collected-in-central-mexico
#17
Ronna Delgado-Altamirano, Rosa Isela López-Palma, Lianet Monzote, José Delgado-Domínguez, Ingeborg Becker, José Fausto Rivero-Cruz, Nuria Esturau-Escofet, Pedro A Vázquez-Landaverde, Alejandra Rojas-Molina
Lantana camara (L.) is employed by several ethnical groups to treat numerous diseases. Although there are no ethnomedical reports on its use against leishmaniasis, organic extracts prepared from L. camara were shown to display leishmanicidal activity. In the present study, we carried out a bioassay-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract from Mexican L. camara in order to identify the compounds responsible for the leishmanicidal activity. Eighteen chromatographic fractions (FI⁻FXVIII) were evaluated in vitro against Leishmania mexicana and L...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781601/characteristics-of-gut-microbiota-in-sows-and-their-relationship-with-apparent-nutrient-digestibility
#18
Qing Niu, Pinghua Li, Shuaishuai Hao, Sung Woo Kim, Taoran Du, Jindi Hua, Ruihua Huang
The gut microbiota plays important roles in animal health and nutrient digestibility. The characteristics of gut microbiota population in grower pigs and their correlation with apparent nutrient digestibility were assessed in previous study. Here we studied characteristics of intestinal microbiota of sows and analyzed their relationships with apparent nutrient (ether extract (EE), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF)) digestibility. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla, approximately 73% of the total sequences...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781591/-paclobutrazol-resistance-gene-family-regulates-floral-organ-growth-with-unequal-genetic-redundancy-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Kihye Shin, Inhye Lee, Eunsun Kim, Soon Ki Park, Moon-Soo Soh, Sumin Lee
A PACLOBUTRAZOL-RESISTANCE ( PRE ) gene family, consisting of six genes in Arabidopsis thaliana , encodes a group of helix-loop-helix proteins that act in the growth-promoting transcriptional network. To delineate the specific role of each of the PRE genes in organ growth, we took a reverse genetic approach by constructing high order pre loss-of-function mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana . In addition to dwarf vegetative growth, some double or high order pre mutants exhibited defective floral development, resulting in reduced fertility...
February 17, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781587/methionine-augments-antioxidant-activity-of-rice-protein-during-gastrointestinal-digestion
#20
Hui Li, Zhengxuan Wang, Mingcai Liang, Liang Cai, Lin Yang
To elucidate the influence of methionine, which is an essential sulfur-containing amino acid, on the antioxidant activity of rice protein (RP), methionine was added to RP (RM). The addition of methionine to RM0.5, RM1.0, RM1.5, RM2.0, and RM2.5 was 0.5-, 1.0-, 1.5-, 2.0-, and 2.5-fold of methionine of RP, respectively. Using the in vitro digestive system, the antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (superoxide; nitric oxide; 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, ABTS), chelating metal (iron), and reducing power were investigated in the hydrolysates of RP and RMs...
February 17, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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