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Clinical Infectious Diseases

Quique Bassat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Melissa Richard-Greenblatt, Noémie Boillat-Blanco, Kathleen Zhong, Zainab Mbarack, Josephine Samaka, Tarsis Mlaganile, Thekla Kazimoto, Valerie D'Acremont, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: The inability to identify individuals with acute fever at risk of death is a barrier to effective triage and management of severe infections, especially in low-resource settings. Since endothelial and immune activation contribute to the pathogenesis of various distinct life-threatening infections, we hypothesized that measuring mediators of these pathways at clinical presentation would identify febrile adults at risk of death. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of markers of endothelial (Angpt-2, sFlt-1, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1) and immune (sTREM-1, IL-6, IL-8, CHI3L1, sTNFR1, PCT, CRP) activation pathways were determined in consecutive adults with acute fever (>38°C) at presentation to outpatient clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania...
May 18, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Melanie Stecher, Annika Claßen, Florian Klein, Clara Lehmann, Henning Gruell, Martin Platten, Christoph Wyen, Georg Behrens, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Jörg Janne Vehreschild
BACKGROUND: Safety and tolerability of analytical treatment interruptions (ATIs) as a vital part of HIV-1 cure studies are discussed. We analyzed current evidence for occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during treatment interruptions (TIs). METHODS: Our analysis included studies reporting on AEs in HIV-1 infected patients undergoing TIs (including ATIs and structured TIs). All interventional and observational studies were reviewed and results extracted based on predefined criteria...
May 18, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
W David Hardy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
A Y Yamamoto, A R T Anastasio, E T Massuda, M L Isaac, A K S Manfredi, J M S Cavalcante, A Carnevale-Silva, K B Fowler, S Boppana, W J Britt, M M Mussi-Pinhata
BACKGROUND: The exact contribution of congenital CMV infection (cCMV) to congenital and early-onset permanent hearing loss in highly seropositive populations is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the contribution of the cCMV to hearing impairment and to estimate the effectiveness of newborn hearing screening (HS) in identifying infants with CMV-related hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 11,900 infants born from a population with ≥97% maternal seroprevalence were screened for cCMV and hearing loss...
May 17, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Yusuke Shimakawa, Gibril Ndow, Ramou Njie, Harr Freeya Njai, Kazuaki Takahashi, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle Akbar, Damien Cohen, Shevanthi Nayagam, Adam Jeng, Amie Ceesay, Bakary Sanneh, Ignatius Baldeh, Masayasu Imaizumi, Kazushige Moriyama, Katsumi Aoyagi, Umberto D'Alessandro, Shunji Mishiro, Isabelle Chemin, Maimuna Mendy, Mark R Thursz, Maud Lemoine
BACKGROUND: To eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, it is essential to scale up testing and treatment. However, conventional tools to assess treatment eligibility, particularly nucleic acid testing (NAT) to quantify HBV DNA, are hardly available and affordable in resource-limited countries. We therefore assessed the performance of novel immunoassay, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg), as an inexpensive (US$ <10-15/assay) alternative to NAT to diagnose clinically important HBV DNA thresholds (≥2,000; ≥20,000; and ≥200,000 IU/ml), and select patients for antiviral therapy in Africa...
May 17, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Arnold S Monto, Joshua G Petrie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Edward A Belongia, Huong Q McLean
Observational studies have consistently shown that influenza vaccine effectiveness is lower for H3N2 relative to H1N1pdm09 and type B, and this is not entirely explained by antigenic match. The triad of virus, vaccine, and host immunity provides a framework to examine contributing factors. Antigenic evolution facilitates H3N2 immune escape, and increasing glycosylation of the hemagglutinin shields antigenic sites from antibody binding. Egg passage adaptation of vaccine viruses generates mutations that alter glycosylation, impair the neutralizing antibody response, and reduce vaccine effectiveness...
May 17, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Elizabeth Temkin, Yehuda Carmeli
Estimates of the number of deaths from antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections are important data for clinicians and public health officials advocating for resources to prevent and treat these infections. The aims of this paper are to describe the various approaches to calculating deaths from AMR infections, to compare the tally of deaths by each approach, and to explain how to interpret the results. Currently, none of the three methods employed by vital statistics systems to count deaths from specific causes (underlying cause of deaths, multiple causes of death, and avoidable deaths) count deaths from AMR infections...
May 17, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Kassem Bourgi, Peter F Rebeiro, Megan Turner, Jessica L Castilho, Todd Hulgan, Stephen P Raffanti, John R Koethe, Timothy R Sterling
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported weight gain in virologically-suppressed persons living with HIV (PLWH) switched from older antiretroviral therapy (ART) to newer integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimens. In this study, we investigated whether weight gain differs among treatment-naïve PLWH starting INSTI-based regimens compared to other ART regimens. METHODS: Adult, treatment-naïve PLWH in the Vanderbilt Comprehensive Care Clinic cohort initiating INSTI, protease inhibitor (PI), and non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART between January 2007 and June 2016 were included...
May 17, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Brian R Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Sarah Gutkind, Bruce R Schackman, Jake R Morgan, Jared A Leff, Linda Agyemang, Sean M Murphy, Matthew J Akiyama, Brianna L Norton, Alain H Litwin, Benjamin P Linas
BACKGROUND: Many people who inject drugs in the US have chronic Hepatitis C (HCV). Onsite treatment in opiate agonist treatment (OAT) programs addresses HCV treatment barriers, but few evidence-based models exist. METHODS: We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of HCV treatment models for OAT patients using data from a randomized trial conducted in Bronx, NY. We used a decision analytic model to compare self-administered individual treatment (SIT), group treatment (GT), directly observed therapy (DOT), and no intervention for a simulated cohort with demographic characteristics of trial participants...
May 16, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Michelle S Hsiang, Nyasatu Ntshalintshali, Mi-Suk Kang Dufour, Nomcebo Dlamini, Nomcebo Nhlabathi, Sibonakaliso Vilakati, Calsile Malambe, Zulisile Zulu, Gugu Maphalala, Joseph Novotny, Maxwell Murphy, Alanna Schwartz, Hugh Sturrock, Roly Gosling, Grant Dorsey, Simon Kunene, Bryan Greenhouse
BACKGROUND: Reactive case detection (RACD) is a widely practiced malaria elimination intervention whereby close contacts of index cases receive malaria testing to inform treatment and other interventions. However, the optimal diagnostic and operational approaches for this resource-intensive strategy are not clear. METHODS: We conducted a three-year prospective national evaluation of RACD in Eswatini, a malaria elimination setting. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was compared to traditional rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for the improved detection of infections, and hotspots (RACD events yielding ≥1 additional infection)...
May 16, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Sabrina A Assoumou, Abriana Tasillo, Claudia Vellozzi, Golnaz Eftekhari Yazdi, Jianing Wang, Shayla Nolen, Liesl Hagan, William Thompson, Liisa M Randall, Lara Strick, Joshua A Salomon, Benjamin P Linas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing and treatment uptake in prisons remains low. We aimed to estimate clinical outcomes, cost-effectiveness (CE), and budgetary impact (BI) of HCV testing and treatment in United States (U.S.) prisons or linkage to care at release. METHODS: We used individual-based simulation modeling with healthcare and Department of Corrections (DOC) perspectives for CE and BI analyses, respectively. We simulated a U.S. prison cohort at entry using published data and Washington State DOC individual-level data...
May 16, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Elizabeth M Krantz, Jacqlynn Zier, Erica Stohs, Chikara Ogimi, Ania Sweet, Sara Marquis, John Klaassen, Steven A Pergam, Catherine Liu
BACKGROUND: Outpatient antibiotic prescribing for acute upper respiratory infections (URI) is a high priority target for antimicrobial stewardship that has not been described for cancer patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients at an ambulatory cancer center with ICD-10 diagnosis code consistent with URI from October 1, 2015 to September 30, 2016. We obtained antimicrobial prescribing, respiratory viral testing, and other clinical data at first encounter for the URI through day 14...
May 16, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Chrispin Chaguza, Ellen Heinsbroek, Rebecca A Gladstone, Terence Tafatatha, Maaike Alaerts, Chikondi Peno, Jennifer E Cornick, Patrick Musicha, Naor Bar-Zeev, Arox Kamng'ona, Aras Kadioglu, Lesley McGee, William P Hanage, Robert F Breiman, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French, Dean B Everett, Stephen D Bentley
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have reduced pneumococcal diseases globally. Pneumococcal genomic surveys elucidate PCV effects on population structure but are rarely conducted in low-income settings despite the high disease burden. METHODS: We undertook whole genome sequencing of 660 pneumococcal isolates collected through surveys from healthy carriers two years from PCV14 introduction and one-year post-rollout in northern Malawi. We investigated changes in population structure, within-lineage serotype dynamics, serotype diversity, and frequency of antibiotic resistance (ABR) and accessory genes...
May 16, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Kathrin Ehren, Arne Meißner, Nathalie Jazmati, Julia Wille, Norma Jung, Jörg Janne Vehreschild, Martin Hellmich, Harald Seifert
BACKGROUND: Timely availability of microbiological results from positive blood cultures is essential to enable early pathogen-directed therapy. The Accelerate Pheno™ system (ADX) is a novel technology using fluorescence in-situ hybridization for rapid species identification (ID) and morphokinetic bacterial analysis for phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) with promising results. Yet the impact of this technology on clinical management and patient outcome remains unclear...
May 16, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Albert Park, Sara Doutre, Mark Schleiss, Angela Shoup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Kathleen M Muldoon, Suresh B Boppana, Kristen H Spytek, Karen B Fowler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Claire Périllaud-Dubois, Letamendia Emmanuelle, Picone Olivier, Bonnin Aurore, Bouthry Elise, Letourneau Alexandra, Benachi Alexandra, Vauloup-Fellous Christelle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases
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