journal

Clinical Infectious Diseases

journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31942952/appropriateness-of-antibiotic-prescribing-in-u-s-children-s-hospitals-a-national-point-prevalence-survey
#1
Alison C Tribble, Brian R Lee, Kelly B Flett, Lori K Handy, Jeffrey S Gerber, Adam L Hersh, Matthew P Kronman, Cindy M Terrill, Mike Sharland, Jason G Newland
BACKGROUND: Studies estimate that 30-50% of antibiotics prescribed for hospitalized patients are inappropriate, but pediatric data are limited. Characterization of inappropriate prescribing practices for children are needed to guide pediatric antimicrobial stewardship. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of antibiotic prescribing at 32 US children's hospitals. Subjects included hospitalized children with ≥1 antibiotic order at 0800 on one day per calendar quarter, over six quarters (Quarter 3 2016 - Quarter 4 2017)...
January 16, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31942947/drug-drug-interactions-among-thai-hiv-positive-transgender-women-undergoing-feminizing-hormone-therapy-and-antiretroviral-therapy-the-ifact-study
#2
Akarin Hiransuthikul, Linrada Himmad, Stephen J Kerr, Rena Janamnuaysook, Theera Dalodom, Kannapat Phanjaroen, Tippawan Pankam, Jiratchaya Kongkapan, Stephen Mills, Ravipa Vannakit, Praphan Phanuphak, Nittaya Phanuphak
BACKGROUND: Drug-drug interactions (DDI) between feminizing hormone therapy (FHT) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a major concern among transgender women (TGW) that may lead to sub-optimal ART adherence and inappropriate FHT dosage. To evaluate potential DDI between FHT and ART, we measured intensive pharmacokinetic parameters (PK) of blood tenofovir (TFV), efavirenz (EFV), and estradiol (E2). METHODS: Twenty newly-diagnosed HIV-positive TGW were enrolled. FHT (estradiol valerate 2 mg and cyproterone acetate 25 mg) were prescribed at baseline until week 5 and restarted at week 8...
January 16, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31942955/persistence-with-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-in-the-united-states-2012-2017
#3
Ya-Lin A Huang, Guoyu Tao, Dawn K Smith, Karen W Hoover
BACKGROUND: Daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing HIV infection if used adherently throughout periods of HIV risk. We estimated PrEP persistence among cohorts of persons with commercial or Medicaid insurance. METHODS: We analyzed data from the IBM MarketScan Research Database to identify persons aged 18-64 years who initiated PrEP between 2012-2017. We assessed PrEP persistence by calculating the time period that each person continued filling PrEP prescriptions until there was a gap in prescription fills >30 days...
January 14, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31942949/does-this-patient-need-blood-cultures-a-scoping-review-of-indications-for-blood-cultures-in-adult-non-neutropenic-inpatients
#4
Valeria Fabre, Sima L Sharara, Alejandra B Salinas, Karen C Carroll, Sanjay Desai, Sara E Cosgrove
Guidance regarding indications for initial or follow-up (FU) blood cultures (BCx) is limited. We conducted a scoping review of articles published between 1/2004-6/2019 that reported the yield of BCx and/or their impact in the clinical management of fever and common infectious syndromes in non-neutropenic adult inpatients. 2,893 articles were screened; 51 were included. Based on the reported incidence of bacteremia, syndromes were categorized into low, moderate and high pre-test probability of bacteremia. Routine BCx are recommended in syndromes with a high likelihood of bacteremia (e...
January 14, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31942945/needed-a-life-course-perspective-on-maintaining-prep-use
#5
Aaron J Siegler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31942944/clinical-impact-of-metagenomic-next-generation-sequencing-of-plasma-cell-free-dna-for-the-diagnosis-of-infectious-diseases-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Catherine A Hogan, Shangxin Yang, Omai B Garner, Daniel A Green, Carlos A Gomez, Jennifer Dien Bard, Benjamin A Pinsky, Niaz Banaei
BACKGROUND: Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of plasma cell-free DNA has emerged as an attractive diagnostic modality allowing broad-range pathogen detection, noninvasive sampling, and earlier diagnosis. However, little is known about its real-world clinical impact as used in routine practice. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients for whom plasma mNGS (Karius test) was performed for all indications at 5 U.S. institutions over 1...
January 14, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31942942/clinical-metagenomics-for-bloodstream-infections-is-the-juice-worth-the-squeeze
#7
N Esther Babady
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31942605/erratum
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31930297/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-based-on-the-interferon-gamma-releasing-assay-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#9
Joung Ha Park, Eun-Ji Choi, Han-Seung Park, Sang-Ho Choi, Sang-Oh Lee, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Jung-Hee Lee, Je-Hwan Lee, Kyoo-Hyung Lee, Tae Sun Shim, Sung-Han Kim
In hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, the incidence of tuberculosis in positive interferon-gamma-releasing-assay (IGRA) without isoniazid prophylaxis (3.58/100 person-years) was higher than in negative-or-indeterminate IGRA (1.15/100 person-years)(P=.01) and in positive IGRA with isoniazid prophylaxis (0/100 person-years)(P=.09). The number needed to treat was 22 (95% CI 12-99) with positive IGRA results.
January 13, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31927576/the-rationale-for-a-mandatory-antibiotic-stewardship-rotation-during-residency-what-worked-what-needs-more-work
#10
Maryrose Laguio-Vila, Emil P Lesho
Reports of antibiotic stewardship (AS) integration into the >1000 U.S. internal medicine and family practice residency core curricula are scarce, but residents value such training. To help address this gap, and the projected shortage of physicians with training for establishing and leading an AS program (ASP), we describe the rationale for, and the output and shortcomings of, a dedicated AS rotation. Residents critically review, in real-time, inpatient antibiotic orders, provide feedback to the prescribers, learn the mechanics and requirements of an ASP, and complete a preliminary quality improvement project...
January 12, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31927570/african-mitochondrial-dna-haplogroup-l2-is-associated-with-slower-decline-of-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-lower-incidence-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-non-hispanic-black-women-with-hiv
#11
Jing Sun, Todd T Brown, Weiqun Tong, David Samuels, Phyllis Tien, Brahim Aissani, Bradley Aouizerat, Maria Villacres, Mark H Kuniholm, Deborah Gustafson, Katherine Michel, Mardge Cohen, Michael Schneider, Adaora A Adimora, Mohammed K Ali, Hector Bolivar, Todd Hulgan
BACKGROUND: Susceptibility to metabolic diseases may be influenced by mitochondrial genetic variability among people living with HIV (PLWH), but remains unexplored in African-ancestry populations. We investigated the association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and β-cell function (HOMA-B), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and incident diabetes mellitus (DM) among black women with or at risk for HIV. METHODS: Women without DM who had fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) data for ≥2 visits were included...
January 12, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31927567/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-immunotherapy-and-need-for-prophylaxis-for-invasive-mold-infections
#12
Russell E Lewis, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31927562/safety-and-efficacy-of-starting-antiretroviral-therapy-in-the-first-week-of-life
#13
Kenneth Maswabi, Gbolahan Ajibola, Kara Bennett, Edmund V Capparelli, Patrick Jean-Philippe, Sikhulile Moyo, Terence Mohammed, Oganne Batlang, Maureen Sakoi, Shahin Lockman, Joseph Makhema, Mathias Lichterfeld, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Michael D Hughes, Roger L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Early antiretroviral treatment (ART) is recommended for HIV-infected infants. However, few antiretroviral options are available for neonates. METHODS: The Early Infant Treatment Study in Botswana tested HIV-exposed infants using DNA PCR within 96 hours of birth, and HIV-infected infants started nevirapine (NVP) 6mg/kg BID, zidovudine (ZDV), and lamivudine (3TC) at age <7 days. Nevirapine trough concentrations were tested at 1 and 2 weeks. NVP was switched to lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV-r) at week 2, 3, 4, or 5 according to delivery gestational age (≥38, 37, 36, 35 weeks)...
January 12, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31926004/reply-to-lewis-and-kontoyiannis
#14
Ghady Haidar, M Hong Nguyen, Palash Samanta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31926001/early-infant-treatment-still-a-long-way-to-go-to-reach-hiv-remission
#15
Louise Kuhn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31925953/epidemiology-of-left-ventricular-assist-device-infections-findings-from-a-large-non-registry-cohort
#16
Merilda O Blanco-Guzman, Xiaowen Wang, Justin M Vader, Margaret A Olsen, Erik R Dubberke
BACKGROUND: Infection is a major complication during circulatory support with a left ventricular assist device (VAD). Changes in device characteristics and treatment practices in the last decade can affect the epidemiology of infection. The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) has published recommendations on the prevention and management of VAD infections, but data to support these recommendations remains sparse. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 455 patients who underwent VAD placement from 2009 to 2015...
January 11, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31925951/the-need-to-build-bridges-between-registry-and-non-registry-studies-in-ventricular-assist-device-associated-infections
#17
Juan M Pericàs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31925950/streptococcus-pyogenes-pbp2x-mutation-confers-reduced-susceptibility-to-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31923305/risk-factors-and-predictors-of-mortality-in-streptococcal-necrotizing-soft-tissue-infections-a-multicenter-prospective-study
#19
Trond Bruun, Eivind Rath, Martin Bruun Madsen, Oddvar Oppegaard, Michael Nekludov, Per Arnell, Ylva Karlsson, Anshu Babbar, Francois Bergey, Andreas Itzek, Ole Hyldegaard, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Steinar Skrede
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing soft-tissue infections (NSTI) are life-threatening conditions often caused by β-hemolytic streptococci, group A streptococcus (GAS) in particular. Optimal treatment is contentious. The INFECT cohort includes the largest set of prospectively enrolled streptococcal NSTI cases to date. METHODS:  From the INFECT cohort of 409 adults admitted with NSTI to five clinical centers in Scandinavia, patients culture-positive for GAS or Streptococcus dysgalactiae (SD) were selected...
January 10, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31922540/impact-of-a-publicly-funded-herpes-zoster-immunization-program-on-the-burden-of-disease-in-ontario-canada-a-population-based-study
#20
Diana Martins, Daniel McCormack, Mina Tadrous, Tara Gomes, Jeffrey C Kwong, Muhammad M Mamdani, Sarah A Buchan, Tony Antoniou
BACKGROUND: In September 2009, a live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine (ZVL) became available in Canada. Beginning in September 2016, ZVL was made available to all Ontario residents aged 65 to 70 through a publicly funded immunization program. We assessed the impact of ZVL availability and its subsequent public funding on herpes zoster burden in this population. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study of Ontario residents aged 65 to 70 between January 2005 and September 2018...
January 10, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
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