journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32971535/have-we-outlived-the-concept-of-commensalism-for-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Richard A Proctor
The concept of commensalism was introduced 145 years ago. The origin of the term comes from the Latin and embodies the concept of dining together. With a much deeper understanding of organisms that live with humans, a reassessment of what represents a commensal seems in order. This viewpoint article examines whether or not Staphylococcus aureus should still be considered a commensal. As a leading cause of serious community and hospital infections, removing the label "commensal" from S. aureus may help us to focus upon how to approach this organism as the host response to this nasal colonizer is closer to mutually assured destruction rather than a friendly meal together...
September 24, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32971534/the-impact-of-hypertension-and-use-of-calcium-channel-blockers-on-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes
#2
Vignesh Chidambaram, Akshay Gupte, Jann-Yuan Wang, Jonathan E Golub, Petros C Karakousis
BACKGROUND: Hypertension induces systemic inflammation, but its impact on the outcome of infectious diseases like tuberculosis (TB) is unknown. Calcium channel blockers (CCB) improve TB treatment outcomes in pre-clinical models, but their effect in patients with TB remain unclear. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study, including all patients > 18 years receiving treatment for culture-confirmed, drug-sensitive TB from 2000 to 2016 at the National Taiwan University Hospital, assessed the association of hypertension and CCB use with all-cause and infection-related mortality during the first 9 months of TB treatment, as well as sputum-smear microscopy and sputum-culture positivity at 2 and 6 months...
September 24, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32971532/predictors-at-admission-of-mechanical-ventilation-and-death-in-an-observational-cohort-of-adults-hospitalized-with-covid-19
#3
Brendan R Jackson, Jeremy A W Gold, Pavithra Natarajan, John Rossow, Robyn Neblett Fanfair, Juliana da Silva, Karen K Wong, Sean D Browning, Sapna Bamrah Morris, Jessica Rogers-Brown, Alfonso C Hernandez-Romieu, Christine M Szablewski, Nadine Oosmanally, Melissa Tobin-D'Angelo, Cherie Drenzek, David J Murphy, Julie Hollberg, James M Blum, Robert Jansen, David W Wright, William M SeweSll, Jack D Owens, Benjamin Lefkove, Frank W Brown, Deron C Burton, Timothy M Uyeki, Stephanie R Bialek, Priti R Patel, Beau B Bruce
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can cause severe illness and death. Predictors of poor outcome collected on hospital admission may inform clinical and public health decisions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort investigation of 297 adults admitted to eight academic and community hospitals in Georgia, United States, during March 2020. Using standardized medical record abstraction, we collected data on predictors including admission demographics, underlying medical conditions, outpatient antihypertensive medications, recorded symptoms, vital signs, radiographic findings, and laboratory values...
September 24, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32970811/implementation-of-french-recommendations-for-the-prevention-and-the-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#4
Antoine Roquilly, Gérald Chanques, Sigismond Lasocki, Arnaud Foucrier, Brice Fermier, Hugues De Courson, Cedric Carrie, Marc Danguy des Deserts, Clément Gakuba, Jean-Michel Constantin, Kevin Lagarde, Mathilde Holleville, Sami Blidi, Achille Sossou, Pauline Cailliez, Celine Monard, Adrien Oudotte, Calypso Mathieu, Jeremy Bourenne, Christian Isetta, Pierre-François Perrigault, Karim Lakhal, Armine Rouhani, Karim Asehnoune, Philippe Guerci, Alexy Tran Dinh, Benjamin Chousterman, Alexandru Cupaciu, Claire Dahyot-Fizelier, Remy Bellier, Jonathan Au Duong, Alexandre Mansour, Jérome Morel, Ghilain Beauplet, Marie-Anne Vibet, Fanny Feuillet, Véronique Sébille, Marc Leone
BACKGROUND: We determined whether an audit on the adherence to guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) for can improve the outcomes of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: This study was conducted at 35 ICUs in 30 hospitals. We included consecutive adult patients hospitalized in ICUs for three days or more. After a three-month baseline period followed by the dissemination of recommendations, an audit on the compliance to recommendations (audit period) was followed by a three-month cluster-randomized trial...
September 24, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32970797/reply-to-rezahosseini-and-nielsen
#5
John F McNamara, Patrick N A Harris, Mark D Chatfield, David L Paterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32970794/acute-myocardial-infarction-following-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infection-is-it-a-result-of-infection-or-the-antibiotics-prescribed
#6
Omid Rezahosseini, Susanne Dam Nielsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32970790/clinical-practice-guidelines-vs-actual-clinical-practice-the-pneumonia-paradigm
#7
Jordi Rello, Grant W Waterer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32970787/lessons-learned-from-the-re-emergent-covid-19-cases-in-areas-of-long-reported-no-community-transmission
#8
Yasmine Ibrahim, Akshay Raut, Joseph Varney, Anmol Sidhu, Vinh Dong, Tien Huy Nguyen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32968772/vaccination-status-of-alaska-native-persons-with-hepatitis-a-virus-infection-alaska-1996-2018
#9
Ian D Plumb, Prabhu P Gounder, Leisha D Nolen, Stephanie C Massay, Louisa Castrodale, Joseph McLaughlin, Mary Snowball, Chriss Homan, Noele P Nelson, Rosalyn Singleton, Michael G Bruce, Brian J McMahon
Following increases in reported cases of hepatitis A, we assessed the impact of hepatitis A vaccine in Alaska Native persons. During 1996-2018, only 6 cases of hepatitis A were identified, all in unvaccinated adults. Populations can be protected against hepatitis A by achieving sufficient vaccination coverage over time.
September 24, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32968797/menopause-status-and-covid-19
#10
Felice Gersh, Carl J Lavie, James H O'Keefe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32968771/reply-to-authors
#11
Ting Ding, Xiangyi Ma, Shixuan Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32966574/rbx7455-a-room-temperature-stable-orally-administered-investigational-live-biotherapeutic-is-safe-effective-and-shifts-patients-microbiomes-in-a-phase-1-study-for-recurrent-clostridioides-difficile-infections
#12
Sahil Khanna, Darrell S Pardi, Courtney Jones, William D Shannon, Carlos Gonzalez, Ken Blount
BACKGROUND: Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (rCDI) are a global public health threat. To reduce rCDI, microbiota-restoring therapies are needed, particularly standardized, easy-to-administer formulations. METHODS: This Phase I open-label trial assessed the safety, efficacy in preventing rCDI recurrence, and intestinal microbiome effects of RBX7455, a room temperature-stable, orally administered investigational live biotherapeutic. Adult participants with one or more prior episodes of rCDI received: four RBX7455 capsules twice daily for four days (Group 1); four RBX7455 capsules twice daily for two days (Group 2); or two RBX7455 capsules twice daily for two days (Group 3)...
September 23, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32966566/serum-antibody-profile-of-a-patient-with-covid-19-reinfection
#13
Kelvin Kai-Wang To, Ivan Fan-Ngai Hung, Kwok-Hung Chan, Shuofeng Yuan, Wing-Kin To, Dominic Ngai-Chong Tsang, Vincent Chi-Chung Cheng, Zhiwei Chen, Kin-Hang Kok, Kwok-Yung Yuen
We recently reported a patient with COVID-19 reinfection. Here, we showed that serum neutralizing antibody could be detected during the first episode but not at presentation of the second episode. During reinfection, neutralizing antibody and high avidity IgG were found within 8 days after hospitalization, while IgM response was absent.
September 23, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32965474/high-frequency-of-sars-cov-2-rnaemia-and-association-with-severe-disease
#14
Catherine A Hogan, Bryan A Stevens, Malaya K Sahoo, ChunHong Huang, Natasha Garamani, Saurabh Gombar, Fumiko Yamamoto, Kanagavel Murugesan, Jason Kurzer, James Zehnder, Benjamin A Pinsky
BACKGROUND: Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in blood, also known as RNAemia, has been reported, but its prognostic implications are poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma and its association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical severity. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study was performed in a single-center tertiary care institution and included consecutive inpatients and outpatients with confirmed COVID-19...
September 23, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32964927/asymptomatic-reinfection-in-two-healthcare-workers-from-india-with-genetically-distinct-sars-cov-2
#15
Vivek Gupta, Rahul C Bhoyar, Abhinav Jain, Saurabh Srivastava, Rashmi Upadhayay, Mohamed Imran, Bani Jolly, Mohit Kumar Divakar, Disha Sharma, Paras Sehgal, Gyan Ranjan, Rakesh Gupta, Vinod Scaria, Sridhar Sivasubbu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32964919/sars-cov-2-transmission-dynamics-should-inform-policy
#16
Muge Cevik, Julia L Marcus, Caroline Buckee, Tara C Smith
It is generally agreed that striking a balance between resuming economic and social activities and keeping the effective reproductive number (R0) below 1 using non-pharmaceutical interventions is an important goal until and even after effective vaccines become available. Therefore, the need remains to understand how the virus is transmitted in order to identify high-risk environments and activities that disproportionately contribute to its spread so that effective preventative measures could be put in place...
September 23, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32964918/double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-with-n-acetylcysteine-for-treatment-of-severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-caused-by-covid-19
#17
Julio Cesar Garcia de Alencar, Claudia de Lucena Moreira, Alicia Dudy Müller, Cleuber Esteves Chaves, Marina Akemi Fukuhara, Elizabeth Aparecida da Silva, Maria de Fátima Silva Miyamoto, Vanusa Barbosa Pinto, Cauê Gasparotto Bueno, Felippe Lazar, Luz Marina Gomez, Maria Clara Saad Menezes, Julio Flavio Meirelles Marchini, Lucas Oliveira Marino, Rodrigo Antônio Brandão, Heraldo Possolo Souza
BACKGROUND: A local increase in angiotensin 2 after inactivation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 by SARS-CoV-2 may induce a redox imbalance in alveolar epithelium cells, causing apoptosis, increased inflammation and, consequently, impaired gas exchange. We hypothesized that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administration could restore this redox homeostasis and suppress unfavorable evolution in Covid-19 patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether NAC in high doses can avoid respiratory failure in patients with Covid-19...
September 23, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32964913/decreased-mortality-in-covid-19-patients-treated-with-tocilizumab-a-rapid-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#18
Jishnu Malgie, Jan W Schoones, Bart G Pijls
BACKGROUND: We systematically reviewed the literature to answer the following research questions: 1) does IL-6 (receptor) antagonist therapy reduce mortality in COVID-19 patients compared to patients not treated with IL-6 (receptor) antagonists and 2) is there an increased risk of side effects in COVID-19 patients treated with IL-6 (receptor) antagonists compared to patients not treated with IL-6 (receptor) antagonists?. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, PMC PubMed Central, MEDLINE, WHO COVID-19 Database, Embase, Web-of-Science, COCHRANE LIBRARY, Emcare and Academic Search Premier (until June 30th2020)...
September 23, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32964223/major-adverse-cardiovascular-events-during-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-are-serotype-dependent
#19
Hector F Africano, Cristian C Serrano-Mayorga, Paula C Ramirez-Valbuena, Ingrid G Bustos, Alirio Bastidas, Hernan A Vargas, Sandra Gómez, Alejandro Rodriguez, Carlos J Orihuela, Luis F Reyes
BACKGROUND: Up to 30% of patients admitted to hospitals with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), experience major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) including new/worsening heart failure, new/worsening arrhythmia, and/or myocardial infarction. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is the most frequently isolated bacterial pathogen among CAP patients and the only etiological agent linked independently to MACE. Nevertheless, no clinical data exists identifying which serotypes of Spn are principally responsible for MACE...
September 22, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32964220/serotype-specific-cardiac-involvement-in-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#20
Keith P Klugman, Charles Feldman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
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