Clinical Infectious Diseases

Isabelle Vock, Lisandra Aguilar-Bultet, Adrian Egli, Pranita D Tamma, Sarah Tschudin-Sutter
We investigated relative proportions of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-PE) versus non-ESBL-PE (nESBL-PE) infections in ESBL-PE colonized patients. ESBL-PE are not causative for the majority of infections in hospitalized patients colonized with ESBL-PE. Site of infection and patient-level exposures may be useful predictors of nESBL-PE infections, potentially guiding empiric treatment recommendations.
July 30, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Emily C Somers, Gregory A Eschenauer, Jonathan P Troost, Jonathan L Golob, Tejal N Gandhi, Lu Wang, Nina Zhou, Lindsay A Petty, Ji Hoon Baang, Nicholas O Dillman, David Frame, Kevin S Gregg, Dan R Kaul, Jerod Nagel, Twisha S Patel, Shiwei Zhou, Adam S Lauring, David A Hanauer, Emily Martin, Pratima Sharma, Christopher M Fung, Jason M Pogue
BACKGROUND: Severe COVID-19 can manifest in rapid decompensation and respiratory failure with elevated inflammatory markers, consistent with cytokine release syndrome for which IL-6 blockade is approved treatment. METHODS: We assessed effectiveness and safety of IL-6 blockade with tocilizumab in a single-center cohort of patients with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation. The primary endpoint was survival probability post-intubation; secondary analyses included an ordinal illness severity scale integrating superinfections...
July 11, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Estela Moreno-García, Marta Hernández-Meneses, Pedro Puerta-Alcalde, Mariana Chumbita, Nicole Garcia-Pouton, Laura Linares, Verónica Rico, Celia Cardozo, José Antonio Martínez, Felipe García, Josep Mensa, Pedro Castro, José María Nicolás, José Muñoz, David Vidal, Alex Soriano
Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 experiencing respiratory symptoms have different complications (inflammatory, co-infection and thrombotic) that are identifiable by analytics patterns. Personalized treatment decisions decreased early mortality (OR 0.144, CI 0.03-0.686; p=0.015). Increasing age (OR 1.06; p=0.038) and therapeutic effort limitation (OR 9.684; p<0.001) were associated with higher mortality.
July 10, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Hui Li, Yanhong Gong, Jing Han, Shengchao Zhang, Shanquan Chen, Xing Xu, Zuxun Lu, Xiaoxv Yin
BACKGROUND: After implementing the 2011 national antimicrobial stewardship campaign, few studies focused on evaluating its effect in China's primary care facilities. METHODS: We randomly selected 11 community health centers in Shenzhen, China, and collected all outpatient prescriptions of these centers from 2010-2015. To evaluate the impact of local interventions on antibiotic prescribing, we used a segmented regression model of interrupted time series to analyze seven outcomes, i...
July 10, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Juan Pablo Torres, Cecilia Piñera, Verónica De La Maza, Anne J Lagomarcino, Daniela Simian, Bárbara Torres, Cinthya Urquidi, María Teresa Valenzuela, Miguel O'Ryan
BACKGROUND: A SARS-CoV-2 outbreak affecting 52 people from a large school community in Santiago, Chile was identified (March 12), nine days after the first country case. We assessed the magnitude of the outbreak and the role students and staff played using a self-administered antibody detection test and survey. METHODS: The school was closed on March 13, and the entire community was placed under quarantine. We implemented a home-delivery, self-administered, IgG/IgM antibody test and survey to a classroom stratified sample of students and all staff from May 4-19...
July 10, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Yik Chun Wong, Siu Ying Lau, Kelvin Kai Wang To, Bobo Wing Yee Mok, Xin Li, Pui Wang, Shaofeng Deng, Kin Fai Woo, Zhenglong Du, Cun Li, Jie Zhou, Jasper Fuk Woo Chan, Kwok Yung Yuen, Honglin Chen, Zhiwei Chen
BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 contains the furin cleavage PRRA motif in the S1/S2 region, which enhances viral pathogenicity but is absent in closely related bat and pangolin coronaviruses. It remains unknown if bat-like coronaviral variants without PRRA (ΔPRRA) can establish natural infection in humans. METHODS: Here, we developed a duplex digital PCR assay to examine ΔPRRA variants in Vero-E6-propagated isolates, human organoids, experimentally infected hamsters and COVID-19 patients...
July 10, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Yi-Min Dong, Jia Sun, Yi-Xin Li, Qian Chen, Qing-Quan Liu, Zhou Sun, Ran Pang, Fei Chen, Bing-Yang Xu, Anne Manyande, Taane G Clark, Jin-Ping Li, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Yu-Ke Tian, Tao Wang, Wei Wu, Da-Wei Ye
BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in 2019 has spread worldwide and continues to cause great threat to peoples' health as well as put pressure on the accessibility of medical systems. Early prediction of survival of hospitalized patients will help the clinical management of COVID-19, but such a prediction model which is reliable and valid is still lacking. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 628 confirmed cases of COVID-19 using positive RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 in Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China...
July 10, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Hong Zhang, Fengjiao Wang, Xiaoxue Zhu, Yunfu Chen, Hong Chen, Xiaojiao Li, Min Wu, Cuiyun Li, Jingrui Liu, Yingjun Zhang, Yanhua Ding, Junqi Niu
BACKGROUND: GLS4 is a first-in-class hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid assembly modulator (class I) that can inhibit HBV replication by interfering with the assembly and disassembly of HBV nucleocapsid. Here, we evaluated its antiviral activity, pharmacokinetics (PK), and tolerability in a double-blind, randomized, parallel, entecavir-controlled study. METHODS: Twenty four chronic HBV patients were randomized to receive a 28-day course of GLS4 (120 or 240 mg) and ritonavir (100 mg) combination (cohorts A and B, respectively) or entecavir treatment (cohort C) at a 1:1:1 ratio...
July 10, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Scott R Curry, Cassandra D Salgado
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Julius M Wilder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Silan Gu, Yanfei Chen, Longxian Lv, Lanjuan Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Amy J Mathers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Flaminia Bardanzellu, Vassilios Fanos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Derek A T Cummings, Lewis J Radonovich, Geoffrey J Gorse, Charlotte A Gaydos, Mary T Bessesen, Alexandria C Brown, Cynthia L Gibert, Matthew D T Hitchings, Justin Lessler, Ann-Christine Nyquist, Susan M Rattigan, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Connie Savor Price, Nicholas G Reich, Michael S Simberkoff, Trish M Perl
BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 presents a large risk to healthcare personnel. Quantifying the risk of coronavirus infection associated with workplace activities is an urgent need. METHODS: We assessed the association of worker characteristics, occupational roles and behaviors, and participation in procedures with the risk of endemic coronavirus infection among healthcare personnel who participated in the Respiratory Protection Effectiveness Trial (ResPECT), a cluster randomized trial to assess personal protective equipment to prevent respiratory infections and illness conducted from 2011 to 2016...
July 9, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
James G Kublin, Sean C Murphy, Janine Maenza, Annette M Seilie, Jay Prakash Jain, David Berger, Danielle Spera, Rong Zhao, Rachel L Soon, Julie L Czartoski, Meredith A Potochnic, Elizabeth Duke, Ming Chang, Ashley Vaughan, Stefan H I Kappe, F Joel Leong, Peter Pertel, William T Prince
BACKGROUND: KAF156 is a novel antimalarial drug that is active against both liver- and blood- stage Plasmodium parasites, including drug-resistant strains. Here, we investigated the causal prophylactic efficacy of KAF156 in a controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) model. METHODS: In Part 1, healthy, malaria-naïve participants received 800 mg KAF156 or placebo three hr before CHMI with Pf-infected mosquitoes. In Part 2, KAF156 was administered as single doses of 800, 300, 100, 50, or 20 mg 21 hr post-CHMI...
July 9, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Hannah E Maier, Guillermina Kuan, Lionel Gresh, Roger Lopez, Nery Sanchez, Amy Schiller, Sergio Ojeda, Eva Harris, Angel Balmaseda, Aubree Gordon
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been shown to increase the risk of severe outcomes and death for influenza virus infections. However, we don't understand the influence of obesity on susceptibility to infection or on non-severe influenza outcomes. METHODS: We performed a case-ascertained, community-based study of influenza transmission within households in Nicaragua. To investigate whether obesity increases the likelihood of influenza infection and symptomatic infection we use logistic regression models...
July 9, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Zhengtu Li, Yinhu Li, Lingdan Chen, Shaoqiang Li, Le Yu, Airu Zhu, Feng Yang, Qian Jiang, Liyan Chen, Jincun Zhao, Wenju Lu, Nanshan Zhong, Feng Ye
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia is a newly recognized disease, and its diagnosis is primarily confirmed by routine RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2. However, we report a confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with routine RT-PCR negative. This case has been finally diagnosed by Nanopore sequencing combined with antibody of SARS-CoV-2. Simultaneously, the ORF and NP gene variation of SARS-CoV-2 were found. This case has highlighted that false negative results could be present in the routine RT-PCR diagnosis, especially with virus variation...
July 9, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Samuel B Reichberg, Partha P Mitra, Aya Haghamad, Girish Ramrattan, James M Crawford, Gregory J Berry, Karina W Davidson, Alex Drach, Scott Duong, Stefan Juretschko, Naomi I Maria, Yihe Yang, Yonah C Ziemba
BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the greater New York metropolitan area became an epicenter for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The initial evolution of case incidence has not been well characterized. METHODS: Northwell Health Laboratories tested 46,793 persons for SARS-CoV-2 from March 4 through April 10. The primary outcome measure was a positive reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2. The secondary outcomes included patient age, sex, and race if stated; dates the specimen was obtained and the test result; clinical practice site sources; geo-location of patient residence; and hospitalization...
July 8, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Jordan J Feld, Gail V Matthews
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 8, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Marion Elligsen, Ruxandra Pinto, Jerome A Leis, Sandra A N Walker, Nick Daneman, Derek R MacFadden
BACKGROUND: Timely selection of adequate empiric antibiotics has become increasingly difficult due to rising resistance rates and the competing desire to apply antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) principles. Individualized clinical prediction models offer the promise of both reducing broad-spectrum antibiotic use and preserving/improving adequacy of treatment, but few have been validated in the clinical setting. METHODS: Multivariable models were used to predict the probability of susceptibility for Gram-negative (GN) bacteria in blood-stream infections (bacteremia) to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, piperacillin-tazobactam and meropenem...
July 8, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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