Hyeontaek Hwang, Hyungseok Kang, Yong-Soo Kwon, Doosoo Jeon, Tae Sun Shim, Jae-Joon Yim
BACKGROUND: Since September 1, 2016, bedaquiline and delamanid have been administered for treatment of patients with multidrug-resistant/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis after the official approval in South Korea. This study aimed to assess and compare the final treatment outcomes of patients who received bedaquiline with those of patients who received delamanid. METHODS: This is a nationwide cohort study of patients with multidrug-resistant/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in whom bedaquiline or delamanid was administered from September 1, 2016, to February 28, 2018, after receiving the official approval in South Korea...
April 10, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Hannah Wang, Catherine A Hogan, Michelle Verghese, Daniel Solis, Mamdouh Sibai, ChunHong Huang, James Zehnder, Malaya K Sahoo, Benjamin A Pinsky
An ultra-sensitive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid antigen assay (S-PLEX, MesoScale Diagnostics) was evaluated in 250 retrospective and 200 prospective upper respiratory specimens. In samples with cycle threshold <35, there was 95%-98% positive and 93%-96% negative percent agreement with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. S-PLEX may provide a high-throughput alternative to nucleic acid-based testing for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis.
April 8, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Joseph Sassine, Fareed Khawaja, Terri Lynn Shigle, Victoria Handy, Farnaz Foolad, Samuel Aitken, Ying Jiang, Richard Champlin, Elizabeth Shpall, Katy Rezvani, Ella J Ariza-Heredia, Roy F Chemaly
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is one of the most common infectious complications after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) and may result in significant morbidity and mortality. Primary prophylaxis with letermovir demonstrated a reduction in clinically significant CMV infections (CS-CMVi) in clinical trials of CMV-seropositive HCT recipients. This study aims at exploring the effect of primary letermovir prophylaxis in this population on the incidence and outcomes of refractory or resistant CMV infections...
April 8, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Jens T Van Praet, Stefaan Vandecasteele, Anneleen De Roo, An S De Vriese, Marijke Reynders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Dirk Westhölter, Christian Taube
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Rémi Forrat, Gustavo H Dayan, Carlos A DiazGranados, Matthew Bonaparte, Thelma Laot, Maria Rosario Capeding, Leilani Sanchez, Diana Leticia Coronel, Humberto Reynales, Danaya Chansinghakul, Sri Rezeki S Hadinegoro, Ana Paula Perroud, Carina Frago, Betzana Zambrano, Tifany Machabert, Yukun Wu, Alexander Luedtke, Brenda Price, Claire Vigne, Owen Haney, Stephen J Savarino, Alain Bouckenooghe, Fernando Noriega
BACKGROUND: CYD-TDV, a live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine, has been approved for the prevention of symptomatic dengue in previously dengue exposed individuals. This post-hoc analysis assessed hospitalized and severe virologically-confirmed dengue (VCD) over the complete 6-year follow-up of three CYD-TDV efficacy studies (CYD14, CYD15 and CYD23/CYD57). METHODS: The main outcomes were hazard ratios (HRs) for hospitalized or severe VCD by baseline dengue serostatus, focusing on those who were seropositive, and by age at immunization (<9 years/≥9 years)...
April 4, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Amihai Rottenstreich, Gila Zarbiv, Esther Oiknine-Djian, Roy Zigron, Dana G Wolf, Shay Porat
Maternal and cord blood sera were collected from 20 parturients who received the BNT162b2 vaccine. All women and infants were positive for anti S- and anti-RBD-specific IgG. Cord blood antibody concentrations were correlated to maternal levels and to time since vaccination. Antenatal SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may provide maternal and neonatal protection.
April 3, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Nell G Bond, Donald S Grant, Sarah T Himmelfarb, Emily J Engel, Foday Al-Hasan, Michael Gbakie, Fatima Kamara, Lansana Kanneh, Ibrahim Mustapha, Adaora Okoli, William Fischer, David Wohl, Robert F Garry, Robert Samuels, Jeffrey G Shaffer, John S Schieffelin
BACKGROUND: Following the 2013-2016 West African Ebola outbreak, distinct, persistent health complaints were recognized in Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors. Here we provide an in-depth characterization of post-Ebola syndrome over 2.5 years after resolution of disease. Additionally, we report sub-phenotypes of post-Ebola syndrome with overlapping symptom clusters in survivors from Eastern Sierra Leone. METHODS: Participants in Eastern Sierra Leone were identified by the Sierra Leone Association of Ebola survivors...
April 3, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Zanthia Wiley, Katie Ross-Driscoll, Zhensheng Wang, Laken Smothers, Aneesh K Mehta, Rachel E Patzer
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of remdesivir and dexamethasone for severe COVID-19 treatment, few large multi-hospital system US studies have described clinical characteristics and outcomes of minority COVID-19 patients who present to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: This cohort study from the Cerner Real World Database (87 US health systems) from December 1, 2019 to September 30, 2020 included PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients who self-identified as non-Hispanic Black (Black), Hispanic White (Hispanic), or non-Hispanic White (White)...
April 2, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Florian Marks, Jie Liu, Abdramane Bassiahi Soura, Nagla Gasmelseed, Darwin Operario, Brian Grundy, John Wieser, Jean Gratz, Christian G Meyer, Justin Im, Jacqueline Kyungah Lim, Vera von Kalckreuth, Ligia Maria Cruz Espinoza, Frank Konings, Hyon Jin Jeon, Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy, Jixian Zhang, Ursula Panzner, Eric Houpt
BACKGROUND: The etiology and optimal clinical management of acute febrile illness (AFI) is poorly understood. METHODS: Blood samples taken from study participants with acute fever (≥37.5°C) or a history of fever and recruited into the previous Typhoid-Fever-Surveillance-in-Africa (TSAP) study were evaluated using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based TaqMan-Array Card designed to detect a panel of bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens. Clinical metadata were also assessed...
April 2, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Daphne F M Reukers, Michiel van Boven, Adam Meijer, Nynke Rots, Chantal Reusken, Inge Roof, Arianne B van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Wim van der Hoek, Susan van den Hof
BACKGROUND: Indoor environments are considered one of the main settings for transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Households in particular represent a close-contact environment with high probability of transmission between persons of different ages and with different roles in society. METHODS: Complete households with a laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive case in the Netherlands (March-May 2020) were included. At least three home visits were performed during 4-6 week of follow-up, collecting naso- and oropharyngeal swabs, oral fluid, feces and blood samples for molecular and serological analyses of all household members...
April 2, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Barbara W Trautner, Daniel J Morgan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Elise Pechter, Nancy Lessin, Lisa Brosseau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Aurélien Dinh, Clara Duran, Louis Bernard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Scott B Halstead
In tropical and subtropical countries four dengue viruses (DENV) produce mild disease and a potentially fatal vascular permeability syndrome. Unique antigenic and biological properties of DENVs contribute to vaccine development delays. Three tissue culture-based tetravalent candidate dengue vaccines have advanced to phase 3 clinical testing. Sanofi-Pasteur's chimeric yellow fever tetravalent dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia, licensed in 19 dengue-endemic countries, Europe and USA, partially protects seropositives but sensitizes some seronegatives to breakthrough severe hospitalized dengue...
March 31, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
James Peng, Jamin Liu, Sabrina A Mann, Anthea M Mitchell, Matthew T Laurie, Sara Sunshine, Genay Pilarowski, Patrick Ayscue, Amy Kistler, Manu Vanaerschot, Lucy M Li, Aaron McGeever, Eric D Chow, Carina Marquez, Robert Nakamura, Luis Rubio, Gabriel Chamie, Diane Jones, Jon Jacobo, Susana Rojas, Susy Rojas, Valerie Tulier-Laiwa, Douglas Black, Jackie Martinez, Jamie Naso, Joshua Schwab, Maya Petersen, Diane Havlir, Joseph DeRisi
BACKGROUND: Sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 viral genome from patient samples is an important epidemiological tool for monitoring and responding to the pandemic, including the emergence of new mutations in specific communities. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2genomicsequencesweregeneratedfrompositivesamplescollected,alongwithepidemiologicalmetadata,atawalk-up, rapid testing site in the Mission District of San Francisco, California during November 22-December 1, 2020 and January 10-29, 2021...
March 31, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Nitin K Prabhakar, Mariam Mian, Christopher S Elliott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Michael Saccente, Gayathri Krishnan
In this retrospective study, (1->3)-β-D-glucan (B-glucan) was an unreliable marker for AIDS-related Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) because a high percentage of participants with progressive disseminated histoplasmosis and respiratory symptoms had a positive B-glucan result. Where histoplasmosis is common attributing B-glucan positivity to PCP without further testing risks misdiagnosis.
March 31, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
David DeGrazia, Franklin G Miller
The COVID-19 pandemic has stimulated massive investment in biomedical research with the aims of understanding the disease and developing effective vaccine and therapeutic interventions. What role should animal research play in this scientific endeavor? Both the urgency to evaluate candidate interventions for human use and growing societal concern about ethical treatment of (nonhuman) animals put into question the justifiability of animal research as a precursor to clinical trials. Yet forgoing animal research in the rush to undertake human testing might expose human research participants to unacceptable risks...
March 31, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Stephen M Kissler, Moriah Mitchell, Yonatan H Grad
We estimated the fraction of antibiotic prescribing in the US attributable to gonorrhea. Gonorrhea contributes to an outsized proportion of antibiotic prescriptions in young adults, males, and in the southern and western US. A gonococcal vaccine could substantially reduce antibiotic prescribing in these populations.
March 31, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
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