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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Interleukin-32 plays an essential role in human calcified aortic valve cells

Chung-Lin Tsai, Ying-Ming Chiu, Yi-Ju Lee, Chin-Tung Hsieh, Dong-Chen Shieh, Gregory J Tsay, Da-Tian Bau, Yi-Ying Wu
European Cytokine Network 2018 March 1, 29 (1): 36-47
29748157
Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is an inflammatory cytokine produced mainly by T, natural killer, and epithelial cells. Previous studies on IL-32 have primarily investigated its proinflammatory properties. The IL-32 also has been described as an activator of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB, and induces several cytokines. In this study, we hypothesized that the inflammatory regulators NF-κB, MAP kinase, STAT1, and STAT3 are associated with the expression of the IL-32 protein in human calcified aortic valve cells. This study comprised aortic valve sclerotic patients and control group patients without calcified aortic valve. Increased IL-32 expression in calcified aortic valvular tissue was shown by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. There was an increase in NF-κB p65 level, p-ERK, p-JNK, and p-p38 MAPK activation underlying IL-32 expression in the study. The level of p-STAT3 but not p-STAT1 was found to be increased in calcified aortic valve tissue. In cultured primary human aortic valve interstitial cells, inhibition of NF-κB or MAPK kinase pathways results in a decrease of IL-32 expression. Treatment of recombinant IL-32 induced the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-8. Our findings demonstrate that IL-32 may be an important pro-inflammatory molecule involved in calcific aortic valve disease.

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