Ratna S Wijaya, Scott A Read, Naomi R Truong, Shuanglin Han, Dishen Chen, Haleh Shahidipour, Nicole L Fewings, Stephen Schibeci, Mahmoud K Azardaryany, Grant P Parnell, David Booth, David van der Poorten, Rita Lin, Jacob George, Mark W Douglas, Golo Ahlenstiel
OBJECTIVE: Vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) confers protection from subsequent infection through immunological memory that is traditionally considered the domain of the adaptive immune system. This view has been challenged following the identification of antigen-specific memory natural killer cells (mNKs) in mice and non-human primates. While the presence of mNKs has been suggested in humans based on the expansion of NK cells following pathogen exposure, evidence regarding antigen-specificity is lacking...
March 30, 2020: Gut
Feng Su, George N Ioannou, Kristin Berry
OBJECTIVE: Entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) are first-line agents for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Recent studies have challenged the assumption that these agents are equally effective at preventing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to determine whether the risk of HCC and mortality differ in patients with CHB treated with ETV and TDF. DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study of Veterans Affairs patients with CHB in the USA who initiated treatment with ETV or TDF between the dates of Food and Drug Administration approval of these medications and 1 January 2017...
March 30, 2020: Gut
Neal Shahidi, W Arnout van Hattem, Sergei Vosko, Michael J Bourke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2020: Gut
Andreas Geier, Jerome Boursier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2020: Gut
Hannes Hagström, Maja Thiele, Bjorn Roelstraete, Jonas Söderling, Jonas F Ludvigsson
OBJECTIVE: Patients with alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) are at increased risk of death, but studies have rarely investigated the significance of histological severity or estimated relative risks compared with a general population. We examined mortality in a nationwide cohort of biopsy-proven ALD. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study in Sweden comparing 3453 individuals with an International Classification of Disease (ICD) code for ALD and a liver biopsy from 1969 to 2017 with 16 535 matched general population individuals...
March 27, 2020: Gut
Sharon J Hutchinson, Heather Valerio, Scott A McDonald, Alan Yeung, Kevin Pollock, Shanley Smith, Stephen Barclay, John F Dillon, Raymond Fox, Peter Bramley, Andrew Fraser, Nicholas Kennedy, Rory N Gunson, Kate Templeton, Hamish Innes, Allan McLeod, Amanda Weir, Peter C Hayes, David Goldberg
OBJECTIVE: Population-based studies demonstrating the clinical impact of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies are lacking. We examined the impact of the introduction of DAAs on HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis (DC) through analysis of population-based data from Scotland. DESIGN: Through analysis of national surveillance data (involving linkage of HCV diagnosis and clinical databases to hospital and deaths registers), we determined i) the scale-up in the number of patients treated and achieving a sustained viral response (SVR), and ii) the change in the trend of new presentations with HCV-related DC, with the introduction of DAAs...
March 26, 2020: Gut
Frank Jühling, Nourdine Hamdane, Emilie Crouchet, Shen Li, Houssein El Saghire, Atish Mukherji, Naoto Fujiwara, Marine A Oudot, Christine Thumann, Antonio Saviano, Armando Andres Roca Suarez, Kaku Goto, Ricard Masia, Mozhdeh Sojoodi, Gunisha Arora, Hiroshi Aikata, Atsushi Ono, Parissa Tabrizian, Myron Schwartz, Stephen J Polyak, Irwin Davidson, Christian Schmidl, Christoph Bock, Catherine Schuster, Kazuaki Chayama, Patrick Pessaux, Kenneth K Tanabe, Yujin Hoshida, Mirjam B Zeisel, François Ht Duong, Bryan C Fuchs, Thomas F Baumert
OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fastest-growing cause of cancer-related mortality with chronic viral hepatitis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as major aetiologies. Treatment options for HCC are unsatisfactory and chemopreventive approaches are absent. Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) results in epigenetic alterations driving HCC risk and persisting following cure. Here, we aimed to investigate epigenetic modifications as targets for liver cancer chemoprevention. DESIGN: Liver tissues from patients with NASH and CHC were analysed by ChIP-Seq (H3K27ac) and RNA-Seq...
March 26, 2020: Gut
Helen H N Yan, Hoi Cheong Siu, Siu Lun Ho, Sarah S K Yue, Yang Gao, Wai Yin Tsui, Dessy Chan, April S Chan, Jason W H Wong, Alice H Y Man, Bernard C H Lee, Annie S Y Chan, Anthony K W Chan, Ho Sang Hui, Arthur K L Cheung, Wai Lun Law, Oswens S H Lo, Siu Tsan Yuen, Hans Clevers, Suet Yi Leung
OBJECTIVE: Sporadic early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC) has bad prognosis, yet is poorly represented by cell line models. We examine the key mutational and transcriptomic alterations in an organoid biobank enriched in EOCRCs. DESIGN: We established paired cancer (n=32) and normal organoids (n=18) from 20 patients enriched in microsatellite-stable EOCRC. Exome and transcriptome analysis was performed. RESULTS: We observed a striking diversity of molecular phenotypes, including PTPRK-RSPO3 fusions...
March 26, 2020: Gut
Mayenaaz Sidhu, David J Tate, Michael J Bourke
Thoracic oesophageal diverticula are often associated with spastic motility disorders. Despite correction of the underlying motility disorder, in a subgroup of patients, symptoms persist, primarily regurgitation. Surgical diverticulectomy is then proposed; however, as the approach is thoracoscopic or via thoracotomy, it is associated with significant morbidity and cost. Descriptions of endoscopic techniques for the treatment of symptomatic midoesophageal diverticula are few. We propose the novel technique of diverticular myotomy (DM) to treat this disorder...
March 26, 2020: Gut
Xi Jin, Jiang-Shan Lian, Jian-Hua Hu, Jianguo Gao, Lin Zheng, Yi-Min Zhang, Shao-Rui Hao, Hong-Yu Jia, Huan Cai, Xiao-Li Zhang, Guo-Dong Yu, Kai-Jin Xu, Xiao-Yan Wang, Jue-Qing Gu, Shan-Yan Zhang, Chan-Yuan Ye, Ci-Liang Jin, Ying-Feng Lu, Xia Yu, Xiao-Peng Yu, Jian-Rong Huang, Kang-Li Xu, Qin Ni, Cheng-Bo Yu, Biao Zhu, Yong-Tao Li, Jun Liu, Hong Zhao, Xuan Zhang, Liang Yu, Yong-Zheng Guo, Jun-Wei Su, Jing-Jing Tao, Guan-Jing Lang, Xiao-Xin Wu, Wen-Rui Wu, Ting-Ting Qv, Dai-Rong Xiang, Ping Yi, Ding Shi, Yanfei Chen, Yue Ren, Yun-Qing Qiu, Lan-Juan Li, Jifang Sheng, Yida Yang
OBJECTIVE: The SARS-CoV-2-infected disease (COVID-19) outbreak is a major threat to human beings. Previous studies mainly focused on Wuhan and typical symptoms. We analysed 74 confirmed COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms in the Zhejiang province to determine epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics. DESIGN: COVID-19 hospital patients were admitted in the Zhejiang province from 17 January 2020 to 8 February 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, management and outcome data of patients with GI symptoms were analysed using multivariate analysis for risk of severe/critical type...
March 24, 2020: Gut
Fabio Lugoboni, Federico Vignoni, Stefano Tamburin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2020: Gut
Minseok Albert Kim, Seung Up Kim, Dong Hyun Sinn, Jeong Won Jang, Young-Suk Lim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Jae-Jun Shim, Yeon Seok Seo, Yang Hyun Baek, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim, Ji Hoon Kim, Won Hyeok Choe, Hyung Joon Yim, Hyun Woong Lee, Jung Hyun Kwon, Sung Won Lee, Jae Young Jang, Hwi Young Kim, Yewan Park, Gi-Ae Kim, Hyun Yang, Han Ah Lee, Myeongseok Koh, Young-Sun Lee, Minkoo Kim, Young Chang, Yoon Jun Kim, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Fabien Zoulim, Jeong-Hoon Lee
OBJECTIVE: Direct comparison of the clinical outcomes between nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) discontinuation versus NA continuation has not been performed in patients with chronic hepatitis B who achieved HBsAg-seroclearance. Whether NA discontinuation was as safe as NA continuation after NA-induced surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg) seroclearance was investigated in the present study. DESIGNS: This multicentre study included 276 patients from 16 hospitals in Korea who achieved NA-induced HBsAg seroclearance: 131 (47...
March 24, 2020: Gut
David Karsenti, Gaelle Tharsis, Bastien Perrot, Philippe Cattan, Gilles Tordjman, Franck Venezia, Elie Zrihen, Dominique Gillot, Agnes Gillet, Charles Hagege, Joelle Samama, Isabelle Etienney, Jean-Philippe Lab, Bernard Guigui, Jacqueline Zago, Bouchra Benkessou, Pascal Burtin, Maryan Cavicchi
OBJECTIVE: Endocuff Vision (ECV) is the second generation of a device designed to improve polyp detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate its impact on adenoma detection rate (ADR) in routine colonoscopy. DESIGN: This cluster-randomised crossover trial compared Endocuff-assisted (ECV+) with standard (ECV-) colonoscopy. Two teams of 11 endoscopists each with prior ECV experience, balanced in terms of basal ADR, gender and case volume were compared. In randomised fashion, the teams started with ECV+ or ECV- and switched group after inclusion of half of the cases...
March 24, 2020: Gut
Jörn M Schattenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2020: Gut
Alexander Charles Ford, Yuhong Yuan, Paul Moayyedi
OBJECTIVES: Gastric cancer is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ). We conducted a previous systematic review and meta-analysis that suggested eradication therapy reduced future incidence of gastric cancer, but effect size was uncertain, and there was no reduction in gastric cancer-related mortality. We updated this meta-analysis, as more data has accumulated. We also evaluated impact of eradication therapy on future risk of gastric cancer in patients having endoscopic mucosal resection for gastric neoplasia...
March 23, 2020: Gut
Justine Vily-Petit, Maud Soty-Roca, Marine Silva, Margaux Raffin, Amandine Gautier-Stein, Fabienne Rajas, Gilles Mithieux
OBJECTIVE: Hepatic steatosis accompanying obesity is a major health concern, since it may initiate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated complications like cirrhosis or cancer. Intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN) is a recently described function that contributes to the metabolic benefits of specific macronutrients as protein or soluble fibre, via the initiation of a gut-brain nervous signal triggering brain-dependent regulations of peripheral metabolism. Here, we investigate the effects of IGN on liver metabolism, independently of its induction by the aforementioned macronutrients...
March 23, 2020: Gut
John Ong, Barnaby Edward Young, Sharon Ong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2020: Gut
Silvio Danese, Elmer Schabel, Mark Andrew Ainsworth, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2020: Gut
David Taylor Hendrixson, Claire Godbout, Alyssa Los, Meghan Callaghan-Gillespie, Melody Mui, Donna Wegner, Taylor Bryant, Aminata Koroma, Mark J Manary
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that an alternative RUTF (ready-to-use therapeutic food) made with oats (oat-RUTF) would be non-inferior to standard RUTF (s-RUTF). DESIGN: This was a randomised, triple-blind, controlled, clinical non-inferiority trial comparing oat-RUTF to s-RUTF in rural Sierra Leone. Children aged 6-59 months with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) were randomised to oat-RUTF or s-RUTF. s-RUTF was composed of milk powder, sugar, peanut paste and vegetable oil, with a hydrogenated vegetable oil additive...
March 16, 2020: Gut
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