Michael Praktiknjo, Robert Schierwagen, Sofia Monteiro, Cristina Ortiz, Frank Erhard Uschner, Christian Jansen, Joan Claria, Jonel Trebicka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2020: Gut
Makoto Sano, Ryota Takahashi, Hideaki Ijichi, Kazunaga Ishigaki, Tomoharu Yamada, Koji Miyabayashi, Gen Kimura, Suguru Mizuno, Hiroyuki Kato, Hiroaki Fujiwara, Takuma Nakatsuka, Yasuo Tanaka, Jinsuku Kim, Yohei Masugi, Yasuyuki Morishita, Mariko Tanaka, Tetsuo Ushiku, Yousuke Nakai, Keisuke Tateishi, Yukimoto Ishii, Hiroyuki Isayama, Harold L Moses, Kazuhiko Koike
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the deadliest cancer. Cancer-associated thrombosis/thromboembolism (CAT), frequently observed in PDAC, is known as a poor prognostic factor. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanisms between PDAC and CAT, and performed a trial of therapeutic approach for PDAC using a genetically engineered mouse model, PKF ( Ptf1acre/+ ;LSL-KrasG12D/+ ;Tgfbr2flox/flox ). DESIGN: Presence of CAT in PKF mice was detected by systemic autopsy...
October 21, 2020: Gut
Song-Yang Zhang, Rosa J W Li, Yu-Mi Lim, Battsetseg Batchuluun, Huiying Liu, T M Zaved Waise, Tony K T Lam
OBJECTIVE: Conjugated bile acids are metabolised by upper small intestinal microbiota, and serum levels of taurine-conjugated bile acids are elevated and correlated with insulin resistance in people with type 2 diabetes. However, whether changes in taurine-conjugated bile acids are necessary for small intestinal microbiome to alter insulin action remain unknown. DESIGN: We evaluated circulating and specifically brain insulin action using the pancreatic-euglycaemic clamps in high-fat (HF) versus chow fed rats with or without upper small intestinal healthy microbiome transplant...
October 21, 2020: Gut
Nigel D'Souza, Theo Georgiou Delisle, Michelle Chen, Sally Benton, Muti Abulafi
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a faecal immunochemical test (FIT) could be used to select patients with suspected colorectal cancer (CRC) symptoms for urgent investigation. DESIGN: Multicentre, double-blinded diagnostic accuracy study in 50 National Health Service (NHS) hospitals across England between October 2017 and December 2019. Patients referred to secondary care with suspected CRC symptoms meeting NHS England criteria for urgent 2 weeks wait referral and triaged to investigation with colonoscopy were invited to perform a quantitative FIT...
October 21, 2020: Gut
Ryan C Ungaro, Erica J Brenner, Richard B Gearry, Gilaad G Kaplan, Michele Kissous-Hunt, James D Lewis, Siew C Ng, Jean-Francois Rahier, Walter Reinisch, Flávio Steinwurz, Fox E Underwood, Xian Zhang, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Michael D Kappelman
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate COVID-19 clinical course in patients with IBD treated with different medication classes and combinations. DESIGN: Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) is a large, international registry created to monitor outcomes of IBD patients with confirmed COVID-19. We used multivariable regression with a generalised estimating equation accounting for country as a random effect to analyse the association of different medication classes with severe COVID-19, defined as intensive care unit admission, ventilator use and/or death...
October 20, 2020: Gut
Lucien Roulet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2020: Gut
Herbert Tilg, Giovanni Targher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2020: Gut
Guruprasad P Aithal, Naaventhan Palaniyappan, Louise China, Suvi Härmälä, Lucia Macken, Jennifer M Ryan, Emilie A Wilkes, Kevin Moore, Joanna A Leithead, Peter C Hayes, Alastair J O'Brien, Sumita Verma
The British Society of Gastroenterology in collaboration with British Association for the Study of the Liver has prepared this document. The aim of this guideline is to review and summarise the evidence that guides clinical diagnosis and management of ascites in patients with cirrhosis. Substantial advances have been made in this area since the publication of the last guideline in 2007. These guidelines are based on a comprehensive literature search and comprise systematic reviews in the key areas, including the diagnostic tests, diuretic use, therapeutic paracentesis, use of albumin, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and beta-blockers in patients with ascites...
October 16, 2020: Gut
Ho-Su Lee, Evy Lobbestael, Séverine Vermeire, João Sabino, Isabelle Cleynen
Inflammatory bowel disease and Parkinson's disease are chronic progressive disorders that mainly affect different organs: the gut and brain, respectively. Accumulating evidence has suggested a bidirectional link between gastrointestinal inflammation and neurodegeneration, in accordance with the concept of the 'gut-brain axis'. Moreover, recent population-based studies have shown that inflammatory bowel disease might increase the risk of Parkinson's disease. Although the precise mechanisms underlying gut-brain interactions remain elusive, some of the latest findings have begun to explain the link...
October 16, 2020: Gut
Thomas Henry Tranah, Lindsey A Edwards, Bernd Schnabl, Debbie Lindsay Shawcross
Cirrhotic portal hypertension is characterised by development of the decompensating events of ascites, encephalopathy, portal hypertensive bleeding and hepatorenal syndrome, which arise in a setting of cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction (CAID) and define morbidity and prognosis. CAID describes the dichotomous observations that systemic immune cells are primed and display an inflammatory phenotype, while failing to mount robust responses to pathogen challenge. Bacterial infections including spontaneous bacterial peritonitis are common complications of advanced chronic liver disease and can precipitate variceal haemorrhage, hepatorenal syndrome and acute-on-chronic liver failure; they frequently arise from gut-derived organisms and are closely linked with dysbiosis of the commensal intestinal microbiota in advanced chronic liver disease...
October 15, 2020: Gut
Hirotsugu Eda, Tadayuki Oshima, Seiichi Hirota, Hiroto Miwa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2020: Gut
Marina Fassarella, Ellen E Blaak, John Penders, Arjen Nauta, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G Zoetendal
The human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem, densely colonised by thousands of microbial species. It varies among individuals and depends on host genotype and environmental factors, such as diet and antibiotics. In this review, we focus on stability and resilience as essential ecological characteristics of the gut microbiome and its relevance for human health. Microbial diversity, metabolic flexibility, functional redundancy, microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions seem to be critical for maintaining resilience...
October 13, 2020: Gut
Pieter Sinonquel, Tom Eelbode, Cesare Hassan, Giulio Antonelli, Federica Filosofi, Helmut Neumann, Ingrid Demedts, Philip Roelandt, Frederik Maes, Raf Bisschops
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2020: Gut
Shannon Linda Kanis, Sanne Modderman, Johanna C Escher, Nicole Erler, Ruud Beukers, Nanne de Boer, Alexander Bodelier, Annekatrien C T M Depla, Gerard Dijkstra, Anne-Baue Ruth Margaretha van Dijk, Lennard Gilissen, Frank Hoentjen, Jeroen M Jansen, Johan Kuyvenhoven, Nofel Mahmmod, Rosalie C Mallant-Hent, Andrea E van der Meulen-de Jong, Anahita Noruzi, Bas Oldenburg, Liekele E Oostenbrug, Pieter C J Ter Borg, Marieke Pierik, Mariëlle Romberg-Camps, Willem Thijs, Rachel West, Alison de Lima, C Janneke van der Woude
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the long-term health outcomes of children born to mothers with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to assess the impact of maternal IBD medication use on these outcomes. DESIGN: We performed a multicentre retrospective study in The Netherlands. Women with IBD who gave birth between 1999 and 2018 were enrolled from 20 participating hospitals. Information regarding disease characteristics, medication use, lifestyle, pregnancy outcomes and long-term health outcomes of children was retrieved from mothers and medical charts...
October 12, 2020: Gut
Dominik Aschenbrenner, Maria Quaranta, Soumya Banerjee, Nicholas Ilott, Joanneke Jansen, Boyd Steere, Yin-Huai Chen, Stephen Ho, Karen Cox, Carolina V Arancibia-Cárcamo, Mark Coles, Eamonn Gaffney, Simon Pl Travis, Lee Denson, Subra Kugathasan, Jochen Schmitz, Fiona Powrie, Stephen N Sansom, Holm H Uhlig
OBJECTIVE: Dysregulated immune responses are the cause of IBDs. Studies in mice and humans suggest a central role of interleukin (IL)-23-producing mononuclear phagocytes in disease pathogenesis. Mechanistic insights into the regulation of IL-23 are prerequisite for selective IL-23 targeting therapies as part of personalised medicine. DESIGN: We performed transcriptomic analysis to investigate IL-23 expression in human mononuclear phagocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
October 9, 2020: Gut
Tracey G Simon, Bjorn Roelstraete, Hamed Khalili, Hannes Hagström, Jonas F Ludvigsson
OBJECTIVE: Population-based data are lacking regarding the risk of overall and cause-specific mortality across the complete histological spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). DESIGN: This nationwide, matched cohort study included all individuals in Sweden with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD (1966 to 2017; n=10 568). NAFLD was confirmed histologically from all liver biopsies submitted to Sweden's 28 pathology departments, after excluding other etiologies of liver disease, and further categorised as, simple steatosis, non-fibrotic steatohepatitis (NASH), non-cirrhotic fibrosis and cirrhosis...
October 9, 2020: Gut
Hanyu Chen, Xiaobin Zheng, Xiaoyu Zong, Zitong Li, Na Li, Jinhee Hur, Cassandra Dl Fritz, William Chapman, Katelin B Nickel, Andrew Tipping, Graham A Colditz, Edward L Giovannucci, Margaret A Olsen, Ryan C Fields, Yin Cao
OBJECTIVE: Factors that lead to metabolic dysregulation are associated with increased risk of early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC diagnosed under age 50). However, the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and early-onset CRC remains unexamined. DESIGN: We conducted a nested case-control study among participants aged 18-64 in the IBM MarketScan Commercial Database (2006-2015). Incident CRC was identified using pathologist-coded International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes, and controls were frequency matched...
October 9, 2020: Gut
Daniel Sifrim, Sabine Roman, Edoardo Savarino, Serhat Bor, Albert J Bredenoord, Donald Castell, Michele Cicala, Nicola de Bortoli, Marzio Frazzoni, Sutep Gonlachanvit, Katsuhiko Iwakiri, Osamu Kawamura, Anne Krarup, Yeong Yeh Lee, Chai Soon Ngiu, Eugene Ndebia, Tanisa Patcharatraku, Ans Pauwels, Julio Pérez de la Serna, Rosa Ramos, Jose Maria Remes-Troche, Mentore Ribolsi, Alastair Sammon, Magnus Simren, Jan Tack, Radu Tutuian, Miguel Valdovinos, Yinglian Xiao, Frank Zerbib, C Prakash Gyawali
OBJECTIVE: Limitations of existing impedance-pH thresholds include small sample size of normative studies, inclusion of artefactual pH drops and incorrect identification of impedance reflux events. We aimed to obtain new impedance-pH thresholds from expert consensus analysis of tracings from a large number of healthy subjects. DESIGN: Of 541 studies performed worldwide using two different systems (Diversatek, USA, and Laborie, Netherlands), 150 tracings with oesophageal diagnoses, behavioural disorders and study-related artefacts were excluded...
October 9, 2020: Gut
Lucas Massier, Rima Chakaroun, Peter Kovacs, John T Heiker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2020: Gut
Kohei Fujikura, Waki Hosoda, Matthäus Felsenstein, Qianqian Song, Johannes G Reiter, Lily Zheng, Violeta Beleva Guthrie, Natalia Rincon, Marco Dal Molin, Jonathan Dudley, Joshua D Cohen, Pei Wang, Catherine G Fischer, Alicia M Braxton, Michaël Noë, Martine Jongepier, Carlos Fernández-Del Castillo, Mari Mino-Kenudson, C Max Schmidt, Michele T Yip-Schneider, Rita T Lawlor, Roberto Salvia, Nicholas J Roberts, Elizabeth D Thompson, Rachel Karchin, Anne Marie Lennon, Yuchen Jiao, Laura D Wood
OBJECTIVE: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are non-invasive precursor lesions that can progress to invasive pancreatic cancer and are classified as low-grade or high-grade based on the morphology of the neoplastic epithelium. We aimed to compare genetic alterations in low-grade and high-grade regions of the same IPMN in order to identify molecular alterations underlying neoplastic progression. DESIGN: We performed multiregion whole exome sequencing on tissue samples from 17 IPMNs with both low-grade and high-grade dysplasia (76 IPMN regions, including 49 from low-grade dysplasia and 27 from high-grade dysplasia)...
October 7, 2020: Gut
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