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Niels J Connell, Riekelt H Houtkooper, Patrick Schrauwen
NAD+ has gone in and out of fashion within the scientific community a number of times since its discovery in the early 1900s. Over the last decade, NAD+ has emerged as a potential target for combatting metabolic disturbances and the mitochondrial dysfunction that is mediated through sirtuin (SIRT) enzymes. The beneficial metabolic effects of the NAD+ /SIRT axis have triggered an increased interest in NAD+ as an enhancer of energy metabolism. As a result, a myriad of publications have focused on NAD+ metabolism, with the majority of the work having been performed using in vitro models, and in vivo work largely consisting of interventions in Caenorhabditis elegans and rodents...
February 16, 2019: Diabetologia
Richard A Oram, Emily K Sims, Carmella Evans-Molina
Histological analysis of donor pancreases coupled with measurement of serum C-peptide in clinical cohorts has challenged the idea that all beta cells are eventually destroyed in type 1 diabetes. These findings have raised a number of questions regarding how the remaining beta cells have escaped immune destruction, whether pools of 'sleeping' or dysfunctional beta cells could be rejuvenated and whether there is potential for new growth of beta cells. In this Review, we describe histological and in vivo evidence of persistent beta cells in type 1 diabetes and discuss the limitations of current methods to distinguish underlying beta cell mass in comparison with beta cell function...
February 14, 2019: Diabetologia
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2019: Diabetologia
Yasuhiro Kyono, Jacob O Kitzman, Stephen C J Parker
Variation in non-coding DNA, encompassing gene regulatory regions such as enhancers and promoters, contributes to risk for complex disorders, including type 2 diabetes. While genome-wide association studies have successfully identified hundreds of type 2 diabetes loci throughout the genome, the vast majority of these reside in non-coding DNA, which complicates the process of determining their functional significance and level of priority for further study. Here we review the methods used to experimentally annotate these non-coding variants, to nominate causal variants and to link them to diabetes pathophysiology...
February 12, 2019: Diabetologia
Dirk Jan Stenvers, Aldo Jongejan, Sadaf Atiqi, Jeroen P Vreijling, Eelkje J Limonard, Erik Endert, Frank Baas, Perry D Moerland, Eric Fliers, Andries Kalsbeek, Peter H Bisschop
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Animal studies have indicated that disturbed diurnal rhythms of clock gene expression in adipose tissue can induce obesity and type 2 diabetes. The importance of the circadian timing system for energy metabolism is well established, but little is known about the diurnal regulation of (clock) gene expression in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. In this study we aimed to identify key disturbances in the diurnal rhythms of the white adipose tissue transcriptome in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes...
February 9, 2019: Diabetologia
Saifur R Khan, Haneesha Mohan, Ying Liu, Battsetseg Batchuluun, Himaben Gohil, Dana Al Rijjal, Yousef Manialawy, Brian J Cox, Erica P Gunderson, Michael B Wheeler
Unfortunately, the graph in Fig. 5f became misaligned during typesetting.
February 8, 2019: Diabetologia
Lene R Madsen, Lisbeth M Baggesen, Bjørn Richelsen, Reimar W Thomsen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on diabetes remission, subsequent diabetes relapse and micro- and macrovascular complications in individuals with type 2 diabetes and obesity (BMI >35 kg/m2 ) in a real-world setting. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study of 1111 individuals with type 2 diabetes treated by RYGB at hospitals in Northern Denmark (2006-2015), and 1074 matched non-operated individuals with type 2 diabetes...
February 6, 2019: Diabetologia
Oluwatoyosi Bello, Cynthia Mohandas, Fariba Shojee-Moradie, Nicola Jackson, Olah Hakim, K George M M Alberti, Janet L Peacock, A Margot Umpleby, Stephanie A Amiel, Louise M Goff
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent in black African than white European populations although, paradoxically, black African individuals present with lower levels of visceral fat, which has a known association with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance occurs at a tissue-specific level; however, no study has simultaneously compared whole body, skeletal muscle, hepatic and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity between black and white men. We hypothesised that, in those with early type 2 diabetes, black (West) African men (BAM) have greater hepatic and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, compared with white European men (WEM), because of their reduced visceral fat...
February 6, 2019: Diabetologia
Jing Zhang, Eunjin Oh, Karla E Merz, Arianne Aslamy, Rajakrishnan Veluthakal, Vishal A Salunkhe, Miwon Ahn, Ragadeepthi Tunduguru, Debbie C Thurmond
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Skeletal muscle accounts for >80% of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake; dysfunction of this process underlies insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Insulin sensitivity is impaired in mice deficient in the double C2 domain β (DOC2B) protein, while whole-body overexpression of DOC2B enhances insulin sensitivity. Whether insulin sensitivity in the skeletal muscle is affected directly by DOC2B or is secondary to an effect on other tissues is unknown; the underlying molecular mechanisms also remain unclear...
February 1, 2019: Diabetologia
Xiang Qian Lao, Cui Guo, Ly-Yun Chang, Yacong Bo, Zilong Zhang, Yuan Chieh Chuang, Wun Kai Jiang, Changqing Lin, Tony Tam, Alexis K H Lau, Chuan-Yao Lin, Ta-Chien Chan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Information on the associations of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm; PM2.5 ) with the development of type 2 diabetes is scarce, especially for south-east Asia, where most countries are experiencing serious air pollution. This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of exposure to ambient PM2.5 on the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a population of Taiwanese adults. METHODS: A total of 147,908 participants without diabetes, at least 18 years of age, were recruited in a standard medical examination programme between 2001 and 2014...
January 31, 2019: Diabetologia
Midhat H Abdulreda, Dora M Berman, Alexander Shishido, Christopher Martin, Maged Hossameldin, Ashley Tschiggfrie, Luis F Hernandez, Ana Hernandez, Camillo Ricordi, Jean-Marie Parel, Ewa Jankowska-Gan, William J Burlingham, Esdras A Arrieta-Quintero, Victor L Perez, Norma S Kenyon, Per-Olof Berggren
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Patients with autoimmune type 1 diabetes transplanted with pancreatic islets to their liver experience significant improvement in quality of life through better control of blood sugar and enhanced awareness of hypoglycaemia. However, long-term survival and efficacy of the intrahepatic islet transplant are limited owing to liver-specific complications, such as immediate blood-mediated immune reaction, hypoxia, a highly enzymatic and inflammatory environment and locally elevated levels of drugs including immunosuppressive agents, all of which are injurious to islets...
January 31, 2019: Diabetologia
Julian Mustroph, Charlotte M Lücht, Olivia Wagemann, Thomas Sowa, Karin P Hammer, Can M Sag, Daniel Tarnowski, Andreas Holzamer, Steffen Pabel, Bo Eric Beuthner, Samuel Sossalla, Lars S Maier, Stefan Wagner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2019: Diabetologia
S P Y Wong, M Huda, P English, A Bargiota, J P H Wilding, A Johnson, R Corrall, J H Pinkney
The authors regret that Alexandra Bargiota's name was spelt incorrectly in the author list. The details given in this correction are correct.
January 29, 2019: Diabetologia
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2019: Diabetologia
Natasha C Bergmann, Asger Lund, Lærke S Gasbjerg, Emma C E Meessen, Maria M Andersen, Sigrid Bergmann, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Lene Jessen, Mikkel B Christensen, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) reduces appetite and energy intake in humans, whereas the other incretin hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), seems to have no effect on eating behaviour. Interestingly, studies in rodents have shown that concomitant activation of GIP and GLP-1 receptors may potentiate the satiety-promoting effect of GLP-1, and a novel dual GLP-1/GIP receptor agonist was recently shown to trigger greater weight losses compared with a GLP-1 receptor agonist in individuals with type 2 diabetes...
January 25, 2019: Diabetologia
Jessica L Dunne, Sarah J Richardson, Mark A Atkinson, Maria E Craig, Knut Dahl-Jørgensen, Malin Flodström-Tullberg, Heikki Hyöty, Richard A Insel, Åke Lernmark, Richard E Lloyd, Noel G Morgan, Alberto Pugliese
In type 1 diabetes, pancreatic beta cells are destroyed by chronic autoimmune responses. The disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals, but a role for environmental factors has been postulated. Viral infections have long been considered as candidates for environmental triggers but, given the lack of evidence for an acute, widespread, cytopathic effect in the pancreas in type 1 diabetes or for a closely related temporal association of diabetes onset with such infections, a role for viruses in type 1 diabetes remains unproven...
January 23, 2019: Diabetologia
Ming-Feng Xia, Huan-Dong Lin, Ling-Yan Chen, Li Wu, Hui Ma, Qian Li, Qiqige Aleteng, Yu Hu, Wan-Yuan He, Jian Gao, Hua Bian, Xiao-Ying Li, Xin Gao
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The rs738409 C>G variant of the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 gene (PNPLA3) increases the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with no predisposition for insulin resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of PNPLA3 polymorphisms on liver fat content (LFC) and glucose metabolic variables, and the associations between these, during the natural course of body weight changes in a Chinese adult cohort. METHODS: The LFC, measured using a quantitative ultrasound method, was prospectively monitored in 2189 middle-aged and elderly adults from the Shanghai Changfeng Study, together with changes in body weight and metabolic variables...
January 23, 2019: Diabetologia
Stephanie H Read, Colin M Fischbacher, Helen M Colhoun, Danijela Gasevic, Joannes J Kerssens, David A McAllister, Naveed Sattar, Sarah H Wild
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to examine trends in the incidence and case fatality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and in hospital admissions for angina and coronary revascularisation procedures in people with type 2 diabetes and in people without diabetes in Scotland between 2006 and 2015. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, AMI, angina and revascularisation event data were obtained for adults from hospital admissions and death records linked to a population-based diabetes register...
January 17, 2019: Diabetologia
Lasse Bjerg, Adam Hulman, Bendix Carstensen, Morten Charles, Daniel R Witte, Marit E Jørgensen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The role of burden and duration of multiple microvascular complications on mortality rate has not been explored in detail in type 1 diabetes. Taking complication burden and time-updated duration into account we aimed to quantify mortality rate in individuals with and without microvascular complications. METHODS: This observational clinical cohort included 3828 individuals with type 1 diabetes attending the Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen in 2001-2013...
January 16, 2019: Diabetologia
William L Lowe, Lynn P Lowe, Alan Kuang, Patrick M Catalano, Michael Nodzenski, Octavious Talbot, Wing-Hung Tam, David A Sacks, David McCance, Barbara Linder, Yael Lebenthal, Jean M Lawrence, Michele Lashley, Jami L Josefson, Jill Hamilton, Chaicharn Deerochanawong, Peter Clayton, Wendy J Brickman, Alan R Dyer, Denise M Scholtens, Boyd E Metzger
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Maternal type 2 diabetes during pregnancy and gestational diabetes are associated with childhood adiposity; however, associations of lower maternal glucose levels during pregnancy with childhood adiposity, independent of maternal BMI, remain less clear. The objective was to examine associations of maternal glucose levels during pregnancy with childhood adiposity in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) cohort. METHODS: The HAPO Study was an observational epidemiological international multi-ethnic investigation that established strong associations of glucose levels during pregnancy with multiple adverse perinatal outcomes...
January 15, 2019: Diabetologia
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