Detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with lampante olive oil and refined olive oil using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis

Georgia Fragaki, Apostolos Spyros, George Siragakis, Emmanuel Salivaras, Photis Dais
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2005 April 20, 53 (8): 2810-6
High-field 31P NMR (202.2 MHz) spectroscopy was applied to the analysis of 59 samples from three grades of olive oils, 34 extra virgin olive oils from various regions of Greece, and from different olive varieties, namely, 13 samples of refined olive oils and 12 samples of lampante olive oils. Classification of the three grades of olive oils was achieved by two multivariate statistical methods applied to five variables, the latter being determined upon analysis of the respective 31P NMR spectra and selected on the basis of one-way ANOVA. The hierarchical clustering statistical procedure was able to classify in a satisfactory manner the three olive oil groups. Subsequent application of discriminant analysis to the five selected variables of oils allowed the grouping of 59 samples according to their quality with no error. Different artificial mixtures of extra virgin olive oil-refined olive oil and extra virgin olive oil-lampante olive oil were prepared and analyzed by 31P NMR spectroscopy. Subsequent discriminant analysis of the data allowed detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration as low as 5% w/w for refined and lampante olive oils. Further application of the classification/prediction model allowed the estimation of the percent concentration of refined olive oil in six commercial blended olive oils composed of refined and virgin olive oils purchased from supermarkets.

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