Modification of renal oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with extracts from Gongronema latifolium leaves

Ngozi H Ugochukwu, Makini K Cobourne
Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry 2003, 336 (1): 73-81

BACKGROUND: Gongronema latifolium is a tropical plant traditionally used in controlling weight gain in lactating women, as well as diabetic and overall health management. In this experiment, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were tested to evaluate their effect on renal oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

METHODS: Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg). The rats were divided into non-diabetic (18) and STZ-induced diabetic (18) rats, and both groups subdivided according to their treatments: aqueous extract (100 mg/kg), ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg) and control (saline solution). Aqueous and ethanolic extracts were administered by gavage in 12-h cycles over a 14-day period.

RESULTS: The results indicated that the ethanolic extract significantly normalized catalase (CAT) activity (p<0.01), increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (p<0.05), and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations (p<0.001). It also nonsignificantly normalized superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, increased GSH/GSSG ratio and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in the diabetic kidney. The aqueous extract had no effect on the superoxide dismutase activity in the diabetic animals and caused a nonsignificant increase in catalase activity.

CONCLUSIONS: The ethanolic extract appeared to be more effective in reducing oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and increasing the GSH/GSSG ratio, thus confirming the ethnopharmacological use of G. latifolium in ameliorating the oxidative stress found in diabetics and indicating promise of possible use in lessening morbidity in affected individuals.

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