Phorbol ester-dependent activation of peroxiredoxin I gene expression via a protein kinase C, Ras, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway

Alexander Hess, Nastiti Wijayanti, Andrea Pathe Neuschäfer-Rube, Norbert Katz, Thomas Kietzmann, Stephan Immenschuh
Journal of Biological Chemistry 2003 November 14, 278 (46): 45419-34
The antioxidant protein peroxiredoxin (Prx) I is a thioredoxin peroxidase that is involved in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of mammalian cells. Here, it is shown that Prx I gene expression was induced transcriptionally by the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in cultured rat liver tissue macrophages and RAW264.7 monocytic cells. TPA-dependent induction of Prx I gene expression was mediated by two proximal activator protein-1 sites of the rat Prx I promoter region that were nuclear targets of c-Jun as determined by transfection studies with luciferase reporter gene constructs and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The transcription factor Nrf2, however, was not involved in the regulation of Prx I promoter activity. Prx I gene induction by TPA was decreased by protein kinase C inhibitors and overexpressed dominant negative forms of Ras and MEKK1, but not Raf-1. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and overexpression of dominant negative mutants of MAPK kinase 4 (MKK4), MKK6, and p38 inhibited the TPA-dependent induction of Prx I gene transcription. In contrast, inhibitors of the JNK, SP600125, and the NF-kappaB signaling pathway, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, respectively, as well as overexpressed dominant negative MKK7 and IkappaB, had no effect on the up-regulation of Prx I reporter gene activity by TPA. Cotransfection of wild-type p38alpha and p38beta, but not that of p38gamma and p38delta, increased Prx I promoter activity. The data indicate that a protein kinase C, Ras, MEKK1, p38 MAPK signaling pathway plays a major role for the transcriptional up-regulation of Prx I gene expression.

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