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Expression and function of chemokines during viral infections: from molecular mechanisms to in vivo function.

Recruitment and activation of leukocytes are important for elimination of microbes, including viruses, from infected areas. Chemokines constitute a group of bioactive peptides that regulate leukocyte migration and also contribute to activation of these cells. Chemokines are essential mediators of inflammation and important for control of viral infections. The profile of chemokine expression contributes to shaping the immune response during viral infection, whereas viral subversion of the chemokine system allows the virus to evade antiviral activities of the host. In this review, we discuss the role of chemokines in host-defense against virus infections, and we also look deeper into the virus-cell interactions that trigger chemokine expression as well as the cellular signaling cascades involved.

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Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

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