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Journal of Leukocyte Biology

Filipe S Pereira-Dutra, Livia Teixeira, Maria Fernanda de Souza Costa, Patrícia T Bozza
Increased accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) in host nonadipose cells is commonly observed in response to numerous infectious diseases, including bacterial, parasite, and fungal infections. LDs are lipid-enriched, dynamic organelles composed of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids associated with a diverse array of proteins that are cell and stimulus regulated. Far beyond being simply a deposit of neutral lipids, LDs have come to be seen as an essential platform for various cellular processes, including metabolic regulation, cell signaling, and the immune response...
May 23, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Serena Abbondante, Eric Pearlman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Bruno V S Valiate, Rodrigo U Alvarez, Laila Karra, Celso M Queiroz-Júnior, Flavio A Amaral, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Mauro M Teixeira
CD300a is an inhibitory immunoreceptor expressed in lymphoid and myeloid cells. This study evaluates whether CD300a plays a role in the control of joint inflammation in a model of Ag-induced arthritis (AIA) in mice. CD300a was found to be expressed mostly on neutrophils and its expression was enhanced on neutrophils that migrated to the inflamed synovial cavity. Joint inflammation, as characterized by neutrophil accumulation, was significantly greater in CD300a KO (CD300a-/- ) mice subjected to AIA, as compared to WT mice...
May 20, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Kassiana Mafra, Brenda Naemi Nakagaki, Hortência Maciel Castro Oliveira, Rafael Machado Rezende, Maísa Mota Antunes, Gustavo Batista Menezes
Leukocytes are a large population of cells spread within most tissues in the body. These cells may be either sessile (called as resident cells) or circulating leukocytes, which travel long journeys inside the vessels during their lifespan. Although production and maturation of these leukocytes in adults primarily occur in the bone marrow, it is well known that this process-called hematopoiesis-started in the embryonic life in different sites, including the yolk sac, placenta, and the liver. In this review, we will discuss how the liver acts as a pivotal site for leukocyte maturation during the embryo phase, and also how the most frequent liver-resident immune cell populations-namely Kupffer cells, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes-play a vital role in both tolerance and inflammatory responses to antigens from food, microbiota, and pathogens...
May 20, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Isabel Prager, Carsten Watzl
Cellular cytotoxicity, the ability to kill other cells, is an important effector mechanism of the immune system to combat viral infections and cancer. Cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells are the major mediators of this activity. Here, we summarize the cytotoxic mechanisms of NK cells. NK cells can kill virally infected of transformed cells via the directed release of lytic granules or by inducing death receptor-mediated apoptosis via the expression of Fas ligand or TRAIL. The biogenesis of perforin and granzymes, the major components of lytic granules, is a highly regulated process to prevent damage during the synthesis of these cytotoxic molecules...
May 20, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Johannes Westman, Sergio Grinstein, Michelle E Maxson
Like other membrane receptor-mediated responses, execution of phagocytosis requires the transduction of signals to cytoplasmic effectors. Signaling in this case is particularly complex as the process involves not only the formation of phagosomes but also their subsequent maturation and resolution. Transient increases in cytosolic calcium, which mediate a variety of other transduction pathways, also feature prominently in phagocytosis. However, despite intensive study over the course of nearly 30 years, the occurrence, source, and functional relevance of such calcium bursts remain the subject of debate...
May 15, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Felipe M Benavente, Jorge A Soto, Magdalena S Pizarro-Ortega, Karen Bohmwald, Pablo A González, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis
IDO is an enzyme that participates in the degradation of tryptophan (Trp), which is an essential amino acid necessary for vital cellular processes. The degradation of Trp and the metabolites generated by the enzymatic activity of IDO can have immunomodulating effects, notably over T cells, which are particularly sensitive to the absence of Trp and leads to the inhibition of T cell activation, cell death, and the suppression of T cell effector functions. Noteworthy, T cells participate in the cellular immune response against the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and are essential for viral clearance, as well as the total recovery of the host...
May 15, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Angélica A A Silveira, Olwyn R Mahon, Clare C Cunningham, Emma M Corr, Rafaela Mendonça, Sara T O Saad, Fernando F Costa, Aisling Dunne, Nicola Conran
Intravascular hemolysis, in addition to reducing red cell counts, incurs extensive vascular inflammation and oxidative stress. One product of hemolysis, heme, is a potent danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP), activating leukocytes and inducing cytokine expression and processing, among other pro-inflammatory effects. We explored pathways by which heme-induced inflammation may be amplified under sterile conditions. Incubation of human Mϕs, differentiated from CD14+ cells, with heme induced time- and concentration-dependent gene and protein expression of S100A8, a myeloid cell-derived alarmin...
May 15, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Ester Roffe, Luara I Dos Santos, Maykon O Santos, Priscilla M Henriques, Andrea Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo A Martins-Filho, Manoel O C Rocha, Silvana M Eloi-Santos, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Lis R V Antonelli
The infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease in Latin America and an imported emerging disease worldwide. Chronic Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC), a progressive inflammatory and fibrosing disease, is the most prominent clinical form of Chagas disease, culminating in heart failure and high rates of sudden death. CCC pathogenesis is influenced by both host and parasite factors and is proposed to be mostly immune-driven. Chemokines are crucial players in orchestrating immune cell recruitment to infected tissues and inflammation...
May 14, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Lauar Monteiro, Jéssica Aparecida da Silva Pereira, Lohanna Palhinha, Pedro Manoel M Moraes-Vieira
Obesity is a pandemic disease affecting around 15% of the global population. Obesity is a major risk factor for other conditions, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The adipose tissue is the main secretor of leptin, an adipokine responsible for the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Obese individuals become hyperleptinemic due to increased adipogenesis. Leptin acts through the leptin receptor and induces several immunometabolic changes in different cell types, including adipocytes and Mϕs...
May 14, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Weverson Luciano Pires, Anderson Makoto Kayano, Onassis Boeri de Castro, Mauro Valentino Paloschi, Jéssica Amaral Lopes, Charles Nunes Boeno, Soraya Dos Santos Pereira, Maísa Mota Antunes, Moreno Magalhães S Rodrigues, Rodrigo Guerino Stábeli, Carla Freire Celêdonio Fernandes, Andreimar Martins Soares, Juliana Pavan Zuliani
BjcuL is a C-type lectin isolated from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom with specificity for binding β-d-galactose units. BjcuL is not toxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), but it inhibits PBMC proliferation and stimulates these cells to produce superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide primarily via lymphocyte stimulation; it does not stimulate the production of nitric oxide and PGE2 . The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of BjcuL on PBMC activation with a focus on cytokine release modulating PBMC proliferation...
May 14, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
David L Williams, Chuanfu Li, Edward R Sherwood
Discussion on implications of the immune paralysis that occurs in many sepsis patients.
May 14, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Ajitha Thanabalasuriar, Paul Kubes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Robert J Hennessy, Kim Pham, Rebecca Delconte, Jai Rautela, Philip D Hodgkin, Nicholas D Huntington
NK cells are innate lymphocytes critical for immune surveillance, particularly in eradication of metastatic cancer cells and acute antiviral responses. In contrast to T cells, NK cell-mediated immunity is rapid, with spontaneous cytotoxicity and cytokine/chemokine production upon pathogen detection. The renaissance in cancer immunology has cast NK cell biology back into the spotlight with an urgent need for deeper understanding of the regulatory networks that govern NK cell antitumor activity. To this end, we have adapted and refined a series of quantitative cellular calculus methods, previously applied to T and B lymphocytes, to dissect the biologic outcomes of NK cells following stimulation with cytokines (IL-15, IL-12, IL-18) or deletion of genes that regulate NK cell proliferation (Cish), survival (Bcl2l11), and activation-induced-cell-death (AICD; Fas)...
May 12, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Cindy Franklin, Kirsten Bruderek, Bastian Schilling, Sven Brandau
Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is known as an immunomodulatory therapy with few side effects, which is mainly used in the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma, graft-versus-host disease, and allograft rejection. During ECP, leukocytes are separated from whole blood by leukapheresis, subsequently chemoirradiated with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA light, and re-infused into the patient. Although clinically effective, its mode of action has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we analyzed the interaction of chemoirradiated neutrophils and CD3+ lymphocytes with APC in an in vitro model...
May 10, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Wenai Liu, Xuehao Wang, Shan Wang, Xueqing Ba, Tingshuang Xu, Xiaoguang Wang, Xianlu Zeng
Cytoskeletal reorganization driven by Rho GTPases plays a crucial role in the migration of T cells, which are key regulators of immunity. The molecular mechanisms that control actin cytoskeleton remodeling during T cell movement have only partially been clarified as the function of many modulators has not been evaluated in these cells. Here, we report a new function of RhoGDI2 by showing that this protein positively regulates Rho GTPase activation during T cell adhesion and migration. RhoGDI2 knockdown significantly reduced T cell adhesion and migration...
May 10, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
James M Parrish, Manasi Soni, Rahul Mittal
Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common ear diseases affecting humans. Children are at greater risk and suffer most frequently from OM, which can cause serious deterioration in the quality of life. OM is generally classified into two main types: acute and chronic OM (AOM and COM). AOM is characterized by tympanic membrane swelling or otorrhea and is accompanied by signs or symptoms of ear infection. In COM, there is a tympanic membrane perforation and purulent discharge. The most common pathogens that cause AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are commonly associated with COM...
May 10, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Yulia Y Tyurina, Claudette St M Croix, Simon C Watkins, Alan M Watson, Michael W Epperly, Tamil S Anthonymuthu, Elena R Kisin, Irina I Vlasova, Olga Krysko, Dmitri V Krysko, Alexandr A Kapralov, Haider H Dar, Vladimir A Tyurin, Andrew A Amoscato, Elena N Popova, Sergey B Bolevich, Peter S Timashev, John A Kellum, Sally E Wenzel, Ramapalla K Mallampalli, Joel S Greenberger, Hulya Bayir, Anna A Shvedova, Valerian E Kagan
In addition to the known prominent role of polyunsaturated (phospho)lipids as structural blocks of biomembranes, there is an emerging understanding of another important function of these molecules as a highly diversified signaling language utilized for intra- and extracellular communications. Technological developments in high-resolution mass spectrometry facilitated the development of a new branch of metabolomics, redox lipidomics. Analysis of lipid peroxidation reactions has already identified specific enzymatic mechanisms responsible for the biosynthesis of several unique signals in response to inflammation and regulated cell death programs...
May 9, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Kely C Matteucci, Gustavo J S Pereira, Ricardo Weinlich, Karina R Bortoluci
Autophagy and inflammasome activation are cell-autonomous and cross-regulated processes involved in host resistance against infections. Our group previously described that NLRP3 inflammasome is required for the control of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. However, the involvement of autophagy in this process was unclear. Here, we demonstrated that T. cruzi was able to induce an increase in LC3-II expression as well as autophagosome and autolysosome formation in peritoneal macrophages (PMs) from C57BL/6 wild-type mice...
May 9, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Brittany M Salter, Michael Aw, Roma Sehmi
Eosinophilic asthma has conventionally been proposed to be a T helper 2 driven disease but emerging evidence supports a central role of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). These are non-T, non-B cells that lack antigen specificity and produce more IL-5 and IL-13 than CD4+ T lymphocytes, on a cell per cell basis, in vitro. Although it is clear that ILC2s and CD4+ T cells work in concert with each other to drive type 2 immune responses, kinetic studies in allergic asthma suggest that ILC2s may act locally within the airways to "initiate" eosinophilic responses, whereas CD4+ T cells act locally and systemically to "perpetuate" eosinophilic inflammatory responses...
May 7, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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