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Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Page 2

Jayajit Das, Lewis L Lanier
The use of mathematical and computational tools in investigating Natural Killer (NK) cell biology and in general the immune system has increased steadily in the last few decades. However, unlike the physical sciences, there is a persistent ambivalence, which however is increasingly diminishing, in the biology community toward appreciating the utility of quantitative tools in addressing questions of biological importance. We survey some of the recent developments in the application of quantitative approaches for investigating different problems in NK cell biology and evaluate opportunities and challenges of using quantitative methods in providing biological insights in NK cell biology...
May 7, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Sushanth Kumar, John R Lukens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Lilian G Oliveira, Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron
Arboviruses have been a huge threat for human health since the discovery of yellow fever virus in 1901. Arboviruses are arthropod born viruses, mainly transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks, responsible for more than thousands of deaths annually. The Flavivirideae family is probably the most clinically relevant, as it is composed of very important agents, such as dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and, recently, Zika virus. Intriguingly, despite their structural and genomic similarities, flaviviruses may cause conditions ranging from mild infections with fever, cutaneous rash, and headache, to very severe cases, such as hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and microcephaly...
May 7, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Renan V H de Carvalho, Alexandre L N Silva, Leonardo L Santos, Warrison A Andrade, Keyla S G de Sá, Dario S Zamboni
The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in response to multiple stimuli and triggers activation of caspase-1 (CASP1), IL-1β production, and inflammation. NLRP3 activation requires two signals. The first leads to transcriptional regulation of specific genes related to inflammation, and the second is triggered when pathogens, toxins, or specific compounds damage cellular membranes and/or trigger the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we assess the requirement of the first signal (priming) for the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) infected with Leishmania amazonensis...
May 7, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Naoki Umeda, Kaori Endo-Umeda, Hiroyuki Nakashima, Shigeaki Kato, Shuhji Seki, Makoto Makishima
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a nuclear receptor for the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 , and regulates various physiologic processes, such as bone and calcium metabolism, cellular proliferation and differentiation, and immunity. VDR is highly expressed in the intestine, kidney, bone, and macrophages, but is expressed at a low level in the liver. The liver is a major metabolic organ and also acts as an immune gateway for dietary nutrients and xenobiotics. In this study, we investigated the function of VDR in hepatic immune cells, such as Kupffer cells/macrophages, utilizing VDR knockout (KO) mice...
April 29, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Amanda E I Proudfoot, Meenu Wadhwa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 29, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Renata Ramalho-Oliveira, Barbara Oliveira-Vieira, João P B Viola
The IRF2BP2 (IFN regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2) protein was identified as a nuclear protein that interacts with IFN regulatory factor 2 (IRF-2) and is an IRF-2-dependent transcriptional repressor. IRF2BP2 belongs to the IRF2BP family, which includes IRF2BP1, IRF2BP2, and IRF2BPL (EAP1). Recently, IRF2BP2 has emerged as an important new transcriptional cofactor in different biological systems, acting as a positive and negative regulator of gene expression. IRF2BP2 plays a role in different cellular functions, including apoptosis, survival, and cell differentiation...
April 25, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Jing-Yi Hong, Shan-Shan Li, Tian-Yong Hu, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Dian Yu, Hai-Qiong Yu, Li Guan, Gao-Hui Wu, Hao-Tao Zeng, Zhi-Gang Liu, Ping-Chang Yang
The pathologic feature of food allergy (FA) is the aberrant Th2-biased immune response in the intestine. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in the suppression of aberrant immune response. The activities of the TLRs regulate multiple cell functions. This study aims to investigate the role of TLR3 activation in the regulation of Th2-biased immune response in the intestine by the generation of inducible Tregs (iTregs). In this study, polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) was used as an activator of TLR3...
April 18, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Aline L Pacheco, Gabriella Vicentini, Kely C Matteucci, Rafaela Rosa Ribeiro, Ricardo Weinlich, Karina R Bortoluci
Trypanossoma cruzi (T. cruzi), the causative protozoan of Chagas disease (CD) invades many cell types, including central nervous system (CNS) cells triggering local lesions and neurological impact. Previous work from our group described NLRP3 inflammasomes as central effectors for the parasite control by macrophages. Recent evidences demonstrate that NLRP3 can be activated in CNS cells with controversial consequences to the control of infections and inflammatory pathologies. However, the relative contribution of NLRP3 in different cell types remains to be elucidated...
April 18, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Vijay Kumar
Various intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize cytosolic pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), a cytosolic PRR, recognizes cytosolic nucleic acids including dsDNAs. The recognition of dsDNA by cGAS generates cyclic GMP-AMP (GAMP). The cGAMP is then recognized by STING generating type 1 IFNs and NF-κB-mediated generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and molecules. Thus, cGAS-STING signaling mediated recognition of cytosolic dsDNA causing the induction of type 1 IFNs plays a crucial role in innate immunity against cytosolic pathogens, PAMPs, and DAMPs...
April 16, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Aparna Mahajan, Anika Grüneboom, Lenka Petru, Malgorzata J Podolska, Lasse Kling, Christian Maueröder, Florian Dahms, Silke Christiansen, Lochnit Günter, Veit Krenn, Anselm Jünemann, Felix Bock, Christine Schauer, Georg Schett, Bettina Hohberger, Martin Herrmann, Luis E Muñoz
Eye rheum is a physiological discharge, which accumulates at the medial angle of the healthy eye soon after opening in the morning. Microscopic evaluation of eye rheum revealed the presence of viable neutrophils, bacteria, epithelial cells, and particles, aggregated by neutrophil extracellular traps. We observed that in the evening, during eye closure, high C5a recruited neutrophils to the tear film and activated them. In this hypoxic area rich in CO2 , neutrophils fight microbial aggressors by degranulation...
April 12, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Kayla A Holder, Michael D Grant
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) persistently infects most of the adult population with periods of productive and latent infection differentially orchestrated by multiple HCMV-encoded gene products. One HCMV gene (UL111a) encodes cmvIL-10, a virokine homologous to human IL (hIL)-10. Although the effects of cmvIL-10 on most human lymphocyte subsets have been extensively studied, its impact on NK cell function was unreported prior to this study. We investigated effects of short-term cmvIL-10 exposure on human NK cells and found it substantially enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity through natural cytotoxicity receptors NKp30 and NKp46 as well as through C-type lectin-like receptors NKG2C and NKG2D...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Ce Tang, Yulia Makusheva, Haiyang Sun, Wei Han, Yoichiro Iwakura
Myeloid C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), which consist of an extracellular carbohydrate recognition domain and intracellular signal transducing motif such as the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) or immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), are innate immune receptors primarily expressed on myeloid lineage cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and Mϕs. CLRs play important roles in host defense against infection by fungi and bacteria by recognizing specific carbohydrate components of these pathogens...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Hai Zhao, Ridong Feng, Aijun Peng, Gaowei Li, Liangxue Zhou
The overwhelming body of research on regulatory lymphocytes has focused on CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ T cells (regulatory T cells); however, the last 5 years have witnessed inspiring progress in our understanding of regulatory B cells, regulatory CD8+ T cells, regulatory γδ cells, and, more recently, regulatory innate lymphoid cells(ILCregs). This review focuses on these so-called noncanonical regulatory cell subsets. We primarily survey existing information on the phenotype, function, sustaining factors, and clinical value of the 4 best-characterized non-CD4 + Foxp3+ T regulatory cells...
April 8, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Nirojah Vijitha, Daniel R Engel
Discussion on remote activation of Th17 cells by lung myeloid cells during EAE.
April 8, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Meihong Deng, Melanie J Scott, Jie Fan, Timothy R Billiar
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a multifunctional nuclear protein, probably known best as a prototypical alarmin or damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule when released from cells. However, HMGB1 has multiple functions that depend on its location in the nucleus, in the cytosol, or extracellularly after either active release from cells, or passive release upon lytic cell death. Movement of HMGB1 between cellular compartments is a dynamic process induced by a variety of cell stresses and disease processes, including sepsis, trauma, and hemorrhagic shock...
April 4, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Silvia De Alessandris, G John Ferguson, Alison J Dodd, Jatinder K Juss, Abhinandan Devaprasad, Siân Piper, Owen Wyatt, Helen Killick, Dominic J Corkill, E Suzanne Cohen, Aridaman Pandit, Timothy R D J Radstake, Rosalind Simmonds, Alison M Condliffe, Matthew A Sleeman, Andrew S Cowburn, Donna K Finch, Edwin R Chilvers
GM-CSF is important in regulating acute, persistent neutrophilic inflammation in certain settings, including lung injury. Ligand binding induces rapid internalization of the GM-CSF receptor (GM-CSFRα) complex, a process essential for signaling. Whereas GM-CSF controls many aspects of neutrophil biology, regulation of GM-CSFRα expression is poorly understood, particularly the role of GM-CSFRα in ligand clearance and whether signaling is sustained despite major down-regulation of GM-CSFRα surface expression...
April 3, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Arshad Khan, Vipul Kumar Singh, Robert L Hunter, Chinnaswamy Jagannath
Macrophages are the primary host cells for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), during its intracellular survival in humans. The pathogen has a remarkable capacity to survive within the hostile environment of macrophages. However, primary infection does not result in active TB disease in most individuals. The majority of individuals remain latently infected, wherein the bacteria are held in check by the host immune response. Nevertheless, such individuals can develop active TB later upon the decline in their immune status...
April 2, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Kamila Bendíčková, Federico Tidu, Marco De Zuani, Marcela Hortová Kohoutková, Ivana Andrejčinová, Antonio Pompeiano, Silvie Bělášková, Giancarlo Forte, Teresa Zelante, Jan Frič
Calcineurin (CN) inhibitors are effective clinical immunosuppressants but leave patients vulnerable to potentially fatal fungal infections. This study tested the hypothesis that CN inhibition interferes with antifungal immune defenses mediated by monocytes. We showed that NFAT is expressed by human monocytes, and is activated by exposure to fungal ligands. We confirmed that NFAT translocation potently activated target gene transcription using a human monocytic reporter cell line. Inhibition of CN-NFAT by cyclosporine A significantly reduced monocyte production of TNF-α, IL-10, and MCP-1 proteins in response to pattern recognition receptor ligands as well as to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Alexandra A Vita, Emily A Royse, Nicholas A Pullen
Gut immune system homeostasis involves diverse structural interactions among resident microbiota, the protective mucus layer, and a variety of cells (intestinal epithelial, lymphoid, and myeloid). Due to the substantial surface area in direct contact with an "external" environment and the diversity of xenobiotic, abiotic, and self-interactions coordinating to maintain gut homeostasis, there is enhanced potential for the generation of endogenous danger signals when this balance is lost. Here, we focus on the potential generation and reception of damage in the gut resulting from exposure to nanoparticles (NPs), common food and drug additives...
March 29, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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