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Severe aortic stenosis with low transvalvular gradient and severe left ventricular dysfunction:result of aortic valve replacement in 52 patients.

Circulation 2000 April 26
BACKGROUND: The outcome of aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis, low transvalvular gradient, and severe left ventricular dysfunction is not well known.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 1985 and 1995, 52 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) < or =35% and aortic stenosis with transvalvular mean gradient <30 mm Hg underwent aortic valve replacement. The mean (+/-SD) preoperative characteristics included EF, 26+/-8%; aortic valve mean gradient, 23+/-4 mm Hg; aortic valve area, 0.7+/-0.2 cm(2); and cardiac output, 3.7+/-1.2 L/min. Simultaneous coronary artery bypass graft surgery was performed in 32 patients (62%). Perioperative (30-day) mortality was 21% (11 of 52 patients). Ten additional patients died during follow-up. Advanced age (P=0.048) and small aortic prosthesis size (P=0.03) were significant predictors of hospital mortality by univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis, the only predictor of surgical mortality was smaller prosthesis size. The only predictor of postoperative survival was improvement in postoperative functional class (P=0.04). Postoperative functional improvement occurred in most patients. Postoperative EF was assessed in 93% of survivors; 74% demonstrated improvement. Positive change in EF was related to smaller preoperative aortic valve area and female sex.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite severe left ventricular dysfunction, low transvalvular mean gradient, and increased operative mortality, aortic valve replacement was associated with improved functional status. Postoperative survival was related to younger patient age and larger aortic prosthesis size, and medium-term survival was related to improved postoperative functional class.

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