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Multifocal Infantile Hemangioma - Presentation of 4 Cases and Review of the Selected Literature.

BACKGROUND: Multifocal infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are focal cutaneous lesions affecting more than 1 anatomic site. The multifocal distribution pattern is the rarest form of IH manifestation, accounting for only 3-4% of all affected infants. This type of cutaneous IHs may be a marker for extracutaneous disease, with the liver being the most frequently affected organ.

METHODS: We investigated the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a small case series of infants with multifocal IHs presenting with different clinical patterns, all diagnosed and treated in a regional tertiary-care pediatric clinic.

RESULTS: Four infants with multifocal IHs were included in the analysis. There were 3 girls and 1 boy. Three out of 4 infants were prematurely born (2 of them very preterm), while only 1 was full-term. Clinical patterns in all cases were quite different, but more than 20 cutaneous IHs were present in each of the patients. Two infants had multifocal liver hemangioma, but without complications. In 3 out of 4 patients, systemic propranolol therapy was introduced, with excellent response in two cases (both with liver involvement).

CONCLUSION: With the increase in the number of cutaneous IHs, the probability of internal organ involvement, most often the liver, also increases. Evaluation for extracutaneous lesions is indicated in infants with 5 or more cutaneous IHs. Treatment of infants with multifocal IHs should be individualized and consider all relevant risk factors, including prematurity.

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