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The impact of overweight on lipid phenotype in different forms of dyslipidemia: a retrospective cohort study.

PURPOSE: Dyslipidemia plays a pivotal role in increasing cardiovascular risk. In clinical practice the misleading association between altered lipid profile and obesity is common, therefore genetically inherited dyslipidemias may not completely be addressed among patients with overweight. Thus, we aim to investigate the influence of overweight and obesity on the lipid phenotype in a cohort of patients with different forms of dyslipidemia.

METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients with dyslipidemia from 2015 to 2022. Patients were stratified in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL), non-familial hyperlipidemia or polygenic hypercholesterolemia (PH). Clinical characteristics and lipid profile were evaluated.

RESULTS: Of the total of 798 patients, 361 were affected by non-familial hyperlipidemia (45.2%), while FCHL, FH and PH was described in 19.9%, 14.0% and 20.9% of patients, respectively. Overweight prevalence was higher in FCHL and non-familial hyperlipidemia patients than FH and PH patients. Subjects with overweight and obesity were independently associated with lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to patients with normal weight (52.4 and 46.0 vs 58.1, respectively; p < 0.0001); levels of triglycerides (TG) and non-HDL-C were higher in patients with overweight and obesity than patients with normal weight (257.3 and 290.9 vs 194.8, and 221.5 and 219.6 vs 210.1, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.01, respectively), while no differences were observed between patients with overweight and obesity.

CONCLUSION: While dyslipidemias can be influenced by various factors, an important determinant may lie in genetics, frequently acting as an underlying cause of altered lipid profiles, even in cases of overweight conditions.

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