journal

Endocrine Reviews

journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31673697/leydig-cells-in-the-adult-testis-characterization-regulation-and-potential-applications
#1
Panpan Chen, Barry R Zirkin, Haolin Chen
Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism) affects males of all ages. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is effective in restoring serum testosterone and relieving symptoms. TRT, however, is reported to have possible adverse side-effects in part because testosterone is administered, not produced in response to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Progress in stem cell biology offers potential alternatives for treating hypogonadism. Adult Leydig cells (ALCs) are generated by stem Leydig cells (SLCs) during puberty...
November 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31673695/fibrous-dysplasia-mccune-albright-syndrome-a-rare-mosaic-disease-of-g%C3%AE-s-activation
#2
Alison M Boyce, Michael T Collins
Fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright syndrome (FD/MAS) is a rare disorder of striking complexity. It arises from somatic, gain-of-function mutations in GNAS, leading to mosaic Gαs activation and inappropriate production of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP). The clinical phenotype is largely determined by the location and extent of affected tissues, and the pathophysiologic effects of Gαs activation within these tissues. In bone, Gαs activation results in impaired differentiation of skeletal stem cells, leading to discrete skeletal lesions prone to fracture, deformity, and pain...
November 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31638161/brown-adipose-cross-talk-in-tissue-plasticity-and-human-metabolism
#3
Camilla Scheele, Christian Wolfrum
Infants rely on brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a primary source of thermogenesis. In some adult humans, residuals of brown adipose tissue are adjacent to the central nervous system and acute activation increase metabolic rate. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) recruitment occurs during cold acclimation and include secretion of factors, known as batokines, which target several different cell types within the BAT, and promote adipogenesis, angiogenesis, immune cell interactions and neurite outgrowth. All these processes seem to act in concert to promote an adapted BAT...
October 22, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31633153/the-new-biology-of-diabetic-kidney-disease-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-implications
#4
Yuliya Lytvyn, Petter Bjornstad, Daniel H van Raalte, Hiddo L Heerspink, David Z I Cherney
Diabetic kidney disease remains the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease in the world. Despite reductions in incidence rates of myocardial infarction and stroke in people with diabetes over the past 3 decades, the risk of diabetic kidney disease has remained unchanged, and may even be increasing in younger individuals afflicted with this disease. Accordingly, changes in public health policy have to be implemented to address the root causes of diabetic kidney disease, including the rise of obesity and diabetes, in addition to the use of safe and effective pharmacological agents to prevent cardiorenal complications in people with diabetes...
October 21, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31629366/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adults-current-concepts-in-etiology-outcomes-and-management
#5
Thomas Marjot, Ahmad Moolla, Jeremy F Cobbold, Leanne Hodson, Jeremy W Tomlinson
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of disease, extending from simple steatosis, through to inflammation and fibrosis with a significant risk for the development of cirrhosis. It is highly prevalent and is associated with significant adverse outcomes both through liver-specific morbidity and mortality, but perhaps more importantly, through adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes. It is tightly associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity and both of these conditions drive progressive disease towards the more advanced stages...
October 20, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31555796/advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#6
Johannes Hofland, Gregory Kaltsas, Wouter W de Herder
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) constitute a diverse group of tumors that derive from the sensory and secretory neuroendocrine cells and predominantly arise within the pulmonary and gastrointestinal tracts. The majority of these neoplasms have a well-differentiated grade and are termed neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). This subgroup is characterized by limited proliferation and patients affected by these tumors carry a good to moderate prognosis. A substantial subset of patients presenting with a NET suffer from the consequences of endocrine syndromes due to the excessive secretion of amines or peptide hormones, which can impair their quality of life and prognosis...
September 26, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31544208/the-role-of-sex-and-sex-hormones-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
Elisabetta Vegeto, Alessandro Villa, Sara Della Torre, Valeria Crippa, Paola Rusmini, Riccardo Cristofani, Mariarita Galbiati, Adriana Maggi, Angelo Poletti
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are a wide class of disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) with still unknown etiology. Several factors were hypothesized to be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases including genetic and environmental factors. Many of these diseases show a sex prevalence and sex steroids where shown to have a role in the progression of specific forms of neurodegeneration. Estrogens were reported to be neuroprotective though their action on cognate nuclear and membrane receptors, while adverse effects of male hormones have been described on neuronal cells, although some data also suggest neuroprotective activities...
September 23, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31513261/autoimmune-pituitary-disease-new-concepts-with-clinical-implications
#8
Masaaki Yamamoto, Genzo Iguchi, Hironori Bando, Keitaro Kanie, Ryoko Hidaka-Takeno, Hidenori Fukuoka, Yutaka Takahashi
Some endocrine disorders, including hypophysitis and isolated ACTH deficiency, are caused by an autoimmune response to endocrine organs. Although the pathogenesis of some autoimmune endocrine diseases has been elucidated, it remains obscure for most. Anti-PIT-1 hypophysitis (anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome) is a newly described pituitary autoimmune disease characterized by acquired and specific growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiencies. This disorder is associated with a thymoma or neoplasm that ectopically expresses PIT-1 protein...
September 12, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31512725/progesterone-and-breast-cancer
#9
Britton Trabert, Mark E Sherman, Nagarajan Kannan, Frank Z Stanczyk
Synthetic progestogens (progestins) have been linked to increased breast cancer risk; however, the role of endogenous progesterone in breast physiology and carcinogenesis is less clearly defined. Mechanistic studies using cell culture, tissue culture, and preclinical models implicate progesterone in breast carcinogenesis. In contrast, limited epidemiologic data generally do not show an association of circulating progesterone levels with risk, and it is unclear whether this reflects methodologic limitations or a truly null relationship...
September 12, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31511855/glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptor-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-do-agonists-antagonists
#10
Elizabeth A Killion, Shu-Chen Lu, Madeline Fort, Yuichiro Yamada, Murielle M Véniant, David J Lloyd
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor (GIPR) is associated with obesity in human genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Similarly, mouse genetic studies indicate that loss of function alleles and GIP overexpression both protect from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain. Together, these data provide compelling evidence to develop therapies targeting GIPR for the treatment of obesity. Further, both antagonists and agonists alone prevent weight gain, but result in remarkable weight loss when co-dosed or molecularly combined with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs preclinically...
September 12, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31511854/glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptor-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-do-agonists-antagonists
#11
Elizabeth A Killion, Shu-Chen Lu, Madeline Fort, Yuichiro Yamada, Murielle M Véniant, David J Lloyd
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor (GIPR) is associated with obesity in human genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Similarly, mouse genetic studies indicate that loss of function alleles and GIP overexpression both protect from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain. Together, these data provide compelling evidence to develop therapies targeting GIPR for the treatment of obesity. Further, both antagonists and agonists alone prevent weight gain, but result in remarkable weight loss when co-dosed or molecularly combined with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs preclinically...
September 12, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31050706/insulin-resistance-and-atherosclerosis-implications-for-insulin-sensitizing-agents
#12
Antonino Di Pino, Ralph A DeFronzo
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at high risk for macrovascular complications, which represent the major cause of mortality. Despite effective treatment of established cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (dyslipidemia, hypertension, procoagulant state), there remains a significant amount of unexplained CV risk. Insulin resistance is associated with a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors known collectively as the insulin resistance (metabolic) syndrome (IRS). Considerable evidence, reviewed herein, suggests that insulin resistance and the IRS contribute to this unexplained CV risk in patients with T2DM...
December 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31127816/bone-marrow-adiposity-basic-and-clinical-implications
#13
Zachary L Sebo, Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Gene P Ables, Dieter M Lindskog, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Pouneh K Fazeli, Mark C Horowitz
The presence of adipocytes in mammalian bone marrow (BM) has been recognized histologically for decades, yet, until recently, these cells have received little attention from the research community. Advancements in mouse transgenics and imaging methods, particularly in the last 10 years, have permitted more detailed examinations of marrow adipocytes than ever before and yielded data that show these cells are critical regulators of the BM microenvironment and whole-body metabolism. Indeed, marrow adipocytes are anatomically and functionally separate from brown, beige, and classic white adipocytes...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31081896/the-gut-microbiome-influences-host-endocrine-functions
#14
Marialetizia Rastelli, Patrice D Cani, Claude Knauf
The gut microbiome is considered an organ contributing to the regulation of host metabolism. Since the relationship between the gut microbiome and specific diseases was elucidated, numerous studies have deciphered molecular mechanisms explaining how gut bacteria interact with host cells and eventually shape metabolism. Both metagenomic and metabolomic analyses have contributed to the discovery of bacterial-derived metabolites acting on host cells. In this review, we examine the molecular mechanisms by which bacterial metabolites act as paracrine or endocrine factors, thereby regulating host metabolism...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31074798/the-aging-thyroid-a-reappraisal-within-the-geroscience-integrated-perspective
#15
Claudio Franceschi, Rita Ostan, Stefano Mariotti, Daniela Monti, Giovanni Vitale
The thyroid plays a crucial and pervasive role in physiology (metabolism, thermogenesis, and immunity, among others) and its aging and related changes in thyroid hormone production contribute to the common occurrence of thyroid diseases in elderly and to age-associated changes in other organs and systems. We address the complexity of thyroid aging following the basic suggestions of geroscience. This integrative new perspective identifies a few basic molecular mechanisms or "pillars" (inflammation, adaptation to stress, loss of proteostasis, stem cell exhaustion, metabolism derangement, macromolecular damage, and epigenetic modifications) as a unifying conceptual framework to understand the aging process and age-associated diseases...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30920583/the-liver-%C3%AE-cell-axis-and-type-2-diabetes
#16
Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Jens Pedersen, Katrine D Galsgaard, Marie Winther-Sørensen, Malte P Suppli, Lina Janah, Jesper Gromada, Hendrik Vilstrup, Filip K Knop, Jens J Holst
Both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) strongly associate with increasing body mass index, and together these metabolic diseases affect millions of individuals. In patients with T2D, increased secretion of glucagon (hyperglucagonemia) contributes to diabetic hyperglycemia as proven by the significant lowering of fasting plasma glucose levels following glucagon receptor antagonist administration. Emerging data now indicate that the elevated plasma concentrations of glucagon may also be associated with hepatic steatosis and not necessarily with the presence or absence of T2D...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31180479/the-use-and-abuse-of-growth-hormone-in-sports
#17
Richard I G Holt, Ken K Y Ho
GH is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency as a performance-enhancing anabolic agent. Doping with GH likely began in the early 1980s and became more prevalent with the advent of recombinant technology well before any scientific evidence of benefit. The expectation that GH improves physical function stems from its anabolic and lipolytic properties. Athletic performance depends on muscle strength and the energy required to power muscle function. In recreational athletes, GH selectively improves anaerobic sprint capacity but has not been proven to significantly enhance muscle strength, power, or maximum rate of oxygen consumption...
August 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31173080/corrigendum-for-growth-hormone-s-links-to-cancer
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31127805/inflammation-in-the-pathophysiology-and-therapy-of-cardiometabolic-disease
#19
Marc Y Donath, Daniel T Meier, Marianne Böni-Schnetzler
The role of chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated complications is now well established. Therapeutic interventions counteracting metabolic inflammation improve insulin secretion and action and glucose control and may prevent long-term complications. Thus, a number of anti-inflammatory drugs approved for the treatment of other inflammatory conditions are evaluated in patients with metabolic syndrome. Most advanced are clinical studies with IL-1 antagonists showing improved β-cell function and glycemia and prevention of cardiovascular diseases and heart failure...
August 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31074800/potential-clinical-error-arising-from-use-of-hba1c-in-diabetes-effects-of-the-glycation-gap
#20
Ananth U Nayak, Baldev M Singh, Simon J Dunmore
The glycation gap (GGap) and the similar hemoglobin glycation index (HGI) define consistent differences between glycated hemoglobin and actual glycemia derived from fructosamine or mean blood glucose, respectively. Such a disparity may be found in a substantial proportion of people with diabetes, being >1 U of glycated HbA1c% or 7.2 mmol/mol in almost 40% of estimations. In this review we define these indices and explain how they can be calculated and that they are not spurious, being consistent in individuals over time...
August 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
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