Hanqing Liu, Wei Li, Wen Zhang, Shengrong Sun, Chuang Chen
Despite the fact that levothyroxine is one of the most prescribed medications in the world, its bioavailability has been reported to be impaired by many factors, including interfering drugs or foods and concomitant diseases, and persistent hypothyroidism with a high dose of levothyroxine is thus elicited. Persistent hypothyroidism can also be induced by noninterchangeability between formulations and poor compliance. To address these issues, some strategies have been developed. Novel formulations (liquid solutions and soft-gel capsules) have been designed to eliminate malabsorption...
November 22, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Michael Nyberg, Dijana Terzic, Trine P Ludvigsen, Peter D Mark, Natasha B Michaelsen, Steen Z Abildstrøm, Mads Engelmann, A Mark Richards, Jens P Goetze
Measurement of natriuretic peptides (NPs) has proven its clinical value as biomarker, especially in the context of heart failure (HF). In contrast, a state partial NP deficiency appears integral to several conditions in which lower NP concentrations in plasma presage overt cardiometabolic disease. Here, obesity and type 2 diabetes have attracted considerable attention. Other factors - including age, sex, race, genetics, and diurnal regulation - affect the NP "armory" and may leave some individuals more prone to development of cardiovascular disease...
November 8, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Lynette J Oost, Cees J Tack, Jeroen H F de Baaij
Hypomagnesemia is tenfold more common in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D), compared to the healthy population. Factors that are involved in this high prevalence are low Mg2+ intake, gut microbiome composition, medication use and presumably genetics. Hypomagnesemia is associated with insulin resistance, which subsequently increases the risk to develop T2D or deteriorates glycaemic control in existing diabetes. Mg2+ supplementation decreases T2D associated features like dyslipidaemia and inflammation; which are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
November 8, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Salvatore Minisola, Seiji Fukumoto, Weibo Xia, Alessandro Corsi, Luciano Colangelo, Alfredo Scillitani, Jessica Pepe, Cristiana Cipriani, Rajesh V Thakker
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an ultrarare paraneoplastic syndrome due to overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), with profound effects on the morbidity of the patients affected. TIO is an underdiagnosed disease, whose awareness should be increased among physicians, for timely and proper management of the patients. Symptoms reported by patients with TIO are usually nonspecific thus rendering the diagnosis elusive, with an initial misdiagnosis rate of >95%. Biochemical features of TIO are represented by hypophosphatemia, increased or inappropriately normal levels of FGF23 and low to low normal circulating 1,25(OH)2D...
November 3, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Rodrigo A Toledo, Camilo Jimenez, Gustavo Armaiz-Pena, Carlota Arenillas, Jaume Capdevila, Patricia L M Dahia
Tumors driven by deficiency of the VHL gene product, which is involved in degradation of the hypoxia inducible factor subunit 2 alpha (HIF2α), are natural candidates for targeted inhibition of this pathway. Belzutifan, a highly specific and well-tolerated HIF2α inhibitor, recently received FDA approval for the treatment of nonmetastatic renal cell carcinomas, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and central nervous system hemangioblastomas from patients with von Hippel Lindau disease, who carry VHL germline mutations...
October 27, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Mirela-Diana Ilie, Alexandre Vasiljevic, Philippe Bertolino, Gérald Raverot
Pituitary adenomas are neoplasms derived from the endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary gland. Most frequently, they are benign tumors, but may sometimes display an aggressive course, and in some cases metastasize. Their biology, including their wide range of behavior, is only partly understood. In terms of therapeutic targeting, most pituitary adenomas are easily treated with the available medical treatments, surgery, and sometimes radiotherapy. Nevertheless, gonadotroph adenomas lack medical therapeutic options, and treatment of aggressive pituitary adenomas and pituitary carcinomas remains challenging...
October 21, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Leticia E Sewaybricker, Alyssa Huang, Suchitra Chandrasekaran, Susan J Melhorn, Ellen A Schur
Accumulated preclinical literature demonstrates that hypothalamic inflammation and gliosis are underlying causal components of diet-induced obesity in rodent models. This review summarizes and synthesizes available translational data to better understand the applicability of preclinical findings to human obesity and its co-morbidities. The published literature in humans includes histopathologic analyses performed postmortem and in vivo neuroimaging studies measuring indirect markers of hypothalamic tissue microstructure...
October 17, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Adam Ramzy, Paul J Belmonte, Mitchell J S Braam, Shogo Ida, Emily M Wilts, Megan K Levings, Alireza Rezania, Timothy J Kieffer
For the past century, insulin injections have saved millions of lives, but glycemic instability is still a persistent challenge for people with diabetes, leading to tremendous morbidity and premature mortality. Research in the field of islet transplantation has demonstrated that replacing insulin-producing β-cells can restore euglycemia comparable to individuals without diabetes. However, a short supply of cadaveric islet donors, the technically challenging process of isolating islets, and the requirement for chronic immune suppression have impeded widespread clinical adoption...
September 16, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Moshe Phillip, Revital Nimri, Richard M Bergenstal, Katharine Barnard-Kelly, Thomas Danne, Roman Hovorka, Boris P Kovatchev, Laurel H Messer, Christopher G Parkin, Louise Ambler-Osborn, Stephanie A Amiel, Lia Bally, Roy W Beck, Sarah Biester, Torben Biester, Julia E Blanchette, Emanuele Bosi, Charlotte K Boughton, Marc D Breton, Sue A Brown, Bruce A Buckingham, Albert Cai, Anders L Carlson, Jessica R Castle, Pratik Choudhary, Kelly L Close, Claudio Cobelli, Amy B Criego, Elizabeth Davis, Carine de Beaufort, Martin I de Bock, Daniel J DeSalvo, J Hans DeVries, Klemen Dovc, Francis J Doyle, Laya Ekhlaspour, Naama Fisch Shvalb, Gregory P Forlenza, Geraldine Gallen, Satish K Garg, Dana C Gershenoff, Linda A Gonder-Frederick, Ahmad Haidar, Sara Hartnell, Lutz Heinemann, Simon Heller, Irl B Hirsch, Korey K Hood, Diana Isaacs, David C Klonoff, Olga Kordonouri, Aaron Kowalski, Lori Laffel, Julia Lawton, Rayhan A Lal, Lalantha Leelarathna, David M Maahs, Helen R Murphy, Kirsten Nørgaard, David O'Neal, Sean Oser, Tamara Oser, Eric Renard, Michael C Riddell, David Rodbard, Steven J Russell, Desmond A Schatz, Viral N Shah, Jennifer L Sherr, Gregg D Simonson, R Paul Wadwa, Candice Ward, Stuart A Weinzimer, Emma G Wilmot, Tadej Battelino
The significant and growing global prevalence of diabetes continues to challenge people with diabetes (PwD), healthcare providers and payers. While maintaining near-normal glucose levels has been shown to prevent or delay the progression of the long-term complications of diabetes, a significant proportion of PwD are not attaining their glycemic goals. During the past six years, we have seen tremendous advances in automated insulin delivery (AID) technologies. Numerous randomized controlled trials and real-world studies have shown that the use of AID systems is safe and effective in helping PwD achieve their long-term glycemic goals while reducing hypoglycemia risk...
September 6, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Kendra L Clark, Jitu W George, Emilia Przygrodzka, Michele R Plewes, Guohua Hua, Cheng Wang, John S Davis
Emerging studies indicate that the Hippo pathway, a highly conserved pathway that regulates organ size control, plays an important role in governing ovarian physiology, fertility, and pathology. Specific to the ovary, the spatiotemporal expression of the major components of the Hippo signaling cascade are observed throughout the reproductive lifespan. Observations from multiple species begin to elucidate the functional diversity and molecular mechanisms of Hippo signaling in the ovary in addition to the identification of interactions with other signaling pathways and responses to various external stimuli...
November 25, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Eisa Tahmasbpour Marzouni, Catharyn Stern, Andrew Henrik Sinclair, Elena Jane Tucker
Having biological children remains an unattainable dream for most couples with reproductive failure or gonadal dysgenesis. The combination of stem cells with gene editing technology and organ-on-a-chip models provides a unique opportunity for infertile patients with impaired gametogenesis caused by congenital disorders in sex development or cancer survivors. But how will these technologies overcome human infertility? This review discusses the regenerative mechanisms, applications, and advantages of different types of stem cells for restoring gametogenesis in infertile patients, as well as major challenges that must be overcome before clinical application...
September 26, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Silvia Federici, Giovanni Goggi, Richard Quinton, Luca Giovanelli, Luca Persani, Biagio Cangiano, Marco Bonomi
Delayed puberty (DP) defines a retardation of onset/progression of sexual maturation beyond the expected age from either a lack/delay of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis activation or a gonadal failure. DP usually gives rise to concern and uncertainty in patients and their families, potentially affecting their immediate psychosocial well-being and also creating longer term psychosexual sequelae. The most frequent form of DP in younger teenagers is self-limiting and may not need any intervention. Conversely, DP from hypogonadism requires prompt and specific treatment that we summarize in this review...
September 26, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Lynnette K Nieman
Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) is associated with morbidities (diabetes, hypertension, clotting disorders) and shortens life because of infections, pulmonary thromboembolism, and cardiovascular disease. Its clinical presentation is immensely variable, and diagnosis and treatment are often delayed. Thus, there are many opportunities for basic and clinical research leading to better tests, faster diagnosis, and optimized medical treatments. This review focuses on CS caused by excessive adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) production...
September 26, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Walter L Miller, Perrin C White
The adrenal is a small, anatomically unimposing structure that escaped scientific notice until 1564, and whose existence was doubted by many until the 18 th century. Adrenal functions were inferred from the adrenal insufficiency syndrome described by Addison and from the obesity and virilization that accompanied many adrenal malignancies, but early physiologists sometimes confused the roles of the cortex and medulla. Medullary epinephrine was the first hormone to be isolated (in 1901), and numerous cortical steroids were isolated between 1930 and 1949...
August 10, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Vinicius N Brito, Ana P M Canton, Carlos Eduardo Seraphim, Ana Paula Abreu, Delanie B Macedo, Berenice B Mendonca, Ursula B Kaiser, Jesús Argente, Ana Claudia Latronico
The etiology of central precocious puberty (CPP) is multiple and heterogeneous, including congenital and acquired causes that can be associated with structural or functional brain alterations. All causes of CPP culminate in the premature pulsatile secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and consequently, in the premature reactivation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. The activation of excitatory factors or suppression of inhibitory factors during childhood represent the two major mechanisms of CPP, revealing a delicate balance of these opposing neuronal pathways...
August 5, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Julian M Yabut, Daniel J Drucker
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) controls islet hormone secretion, gut motility, and body weight, supporting development of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. GLP-1RA exhibit a favorable safety profile and reduce the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in people with T2D. Considerable preclinical data, supported by the results of clinical trials, link therapy with GLP-RA to reduction of hepatic inflammation, steatosis, and fibrosis. Mechanistically, the actions of GLP-1 on the liver are primarily indirect, as hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and stellate cells do not express the canonical GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)...
July 30, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, Carol A Lange, Ellis R Levin
Rapid effects of steroid hormones were discovered in the early 1950s, but the subject was dominated in the 1970s by discoveries of estradiol and progesterone stimulating protein synthesis. This led to the paradigm that steroid hormones regulate growth, differentiation, and metabolism via binding a receptor in the nucleus. It took 30 years to appreciate not only that some cellular functions arise solely from membrane-localized steroid receptor (SR) actions, but that rapid sex steroid signaling from membrane-localized SRs is a prerequisite for the phosphorylation, nuclear import, and potentiation of the transcriptional activity of nuclear SR counterparts...
July 13, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Qiwei Yang, Michal Ciebiera, Maria Victoria Bariani, Mohamed Ali, Hoda Elkafas, Thomas G Boyer, Ayman Al-Hendy
Uterine fibroids are benign monoclonal neoplasms of the myometrium, representing the most common tumors in women worldwide. To date, no long-term or noninvasive treatment option exists for hormone-dependent uterine fibroids, due to the limited knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and development of uterine fibroids. This paper comprehensively summarizes the recent research advances on uterine fibroids, focusing on risk factors, development origin, pathogenetic mechanisms, and treatment options...
July 13, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Ben Stocks, Juleen R Zierath
Diabetes is a global epidemic, of which type 2 diabetes makes up the majority of cases. Nonetheless, for some individuals, type 2 diabetes is eminently preventable and treatable via lifestyle interventions. Glucose uptake into skeletal muscle increases during and in recovery from exercise, with exercise effective at controlling glucose homeostasis in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, acute and chronic exercise sensitizes skeletal muscle to insulin. A complex network of signals converge and interact to regulate glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in response to exercise...
July 13, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
Binita Chakraborty, Jovita Byemerwa, Taylor Krebs, Felicia Lim, Ching-Yi Chang, Donald P McDonnell
The immune system functions in a sexually dimorphic manner with females exhibiting more robust immune responses than males. However, how female sex hormones affect immune function in normal homeostasis and in autoimmunity is poorly understood. In this review we discuss how estrogens affect innate and adaptive immune cell activity and how dysregulation of estrogen signaling underlies the pathobiology of some autoimmune diseases and cancers. The potential roles of the major circulating estrogens, and each of the three estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ and GPER) in the regulation of the activity of different immune cells are considered...
June 16, 2022: Endocrine Reviews
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