Seo Young Sohn, Kosuke Inoue, Connie M Rhee, Angela M Leung
Iodine is a micronutrient that is required for thyroid hormone synthesis. The iodide cycle in thyroid hormone synthesis consists of a series of transport, oxidation, organification, and binding/coupling steps in thyroid follicular cells. Common sources of iodine include the consumption of an iodine-rich diet or iodine fortified foods, the administration of amiodarone, iodine-containing supplements, or iodinated contrast media, and other miscellaneous sources. Methods to assess population iodine status include the measurement of urinary iodine concentrations, blood thyroglobulin levels, prevalence of elevated neonatal TSH levels, and thyroid volume...
June 13, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Edward O List, Reetobrata Basu, Darlene E Berryman, Silvana Duran-Ortiz, Gabriel Á Martos-Moreno, John J Kopchick
Mouse models of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) have provided important tools for uncovering the various actions of GH. Nearly 100 years of research using these mouse lines has greatly enhanced our knowledge of the GH/IGF-1 axis. Some of the shared phenotypes of the five "common" mouse models of GHD include reduced body size, delayed sexual maturation, decreased fertility, reduced muscle mass, increased adiposity, and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Since these common mouse lines outlive their normal-sized littermates - and have protection from age-associated disease - they have become important fixtures in the aging field...
June 10, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Shoaib Ugradar, Emil Malkhasyan, Raymond S Douglas
Thyroid eye disease (TED) is the most common extra thyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease (GD). It may also present in those who are hypothyroid or euthyroid. The characteristic clinical manifestations of TED: chemosis, lid swelling, proptosis and diplopia are driven by a combination of inflammation and extracellular matrix modification. It has recently emerged that one of the major drivers of this molecular signature is the over-expression of the insulin like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) on key effector cells in TED pathogenesis...
June 5, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Sophie A Clarke, Pei Chia Eng, Alexander N Comninos, Katharine Lazarus, Sirazum Choudhury, Christie Tsang, Karim Meeran, Tricia M Tan, Waljit S Dhillo, Ali Abbara
Glucocorticoid hormones (GC) are secreted in a circadian and ultradian rhythm and play a critical role in maintaining physiological homeostasis, with both excess and insufficient GC associated with adverse effects on health. Current assessment of GC status is primarily clinical, often in conjunction with serum cortisol values, which may be stimulated or suppressed depending on the GC disturbance being assessed. In the setting of extreme perturbations in cortisol levels i.e. markedly low or high levels, symptoms and signs of GC dysfunction may be overt...
May 25, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Lincoln R Potter
Receptor guanylyl cyclases (GCs) are single membrane spanning, multidomain enzymes, that synthesize cGMP in response to natriuretic peptides or other ligands. They are evolutionarily conserved from sea urchins to humans and regulate diverse physiologies. Most family members are phosphorylated on four to seven conserved serines or threonines at the beginning of their kinase homology domains. This review describes studies that demonstrate that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are required for activation and inactivation of these enzymes, respectively...
May 7, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Adrian F Daly, Albert Beckers
Pituitary gigantism is a rare manifestation of chronic growth hormone (GH) excess that begins before closure of the growth plates. Nearly half of pituitary gigantism patients have an identifiable genetic cause. X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG; 10% of pituitary gigantism) typically begins during infancy and can lead to the tallest individuals described. In the 10 years since its discovery, about 40 patients have been identified. Patients with X-LAG usually develop mixed GH and prolactin macroadenomas with occasional hyperplasia that secrete copious amounts of GH, and frequently prolactin...
May 2, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Andrea Giustina, John P Bilezikian, Robert A Adler, Giuseppe Banfi, Daniel D Bikle, Neil C Binkley, Jens Bollerslev, Roger Bouillon, Maria Luisa Brandi, Felipe F Casanueva, Luigi di Filippo, Lorenzo M Donini, Peter R Ebeling, Ghada El-Hajj Fuleihan, Angelo Fassio, Stefano Frara, Glenville Jones, Claudio Marcocci, Adrian R Martineau, Salvatore Minisola, Nicola Napoli, Massimo Procopio, René Rizzoli, Anne L Schafer, Christopher T Sempos, Fabio Massimo Ulivieri, Jyrki K Virtanen
The 6th International Conference, "Controversies in Vitamin D," was convened to discuss controversial topics, such as vitamin D metabolism, assessment, actions, and supplementation. Novel insights into vitamin D mechanisms of action suggest links with conditions that do not depend only on reduced solar exposure or diet intake and that can be detected with distinctive noncanonical vitamin D metabolites. Optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels remain debated. Varying recommendations from different societies arise from evaluating different clinical or public health approaches...
April 27, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Hoong-Wei Gan, Manuela Cerbone, Mehul Tulsidas Dattani
Since hypothalamic obesity (HyOb) was first described over 120 years ago by Joseph Babinski and Alfred Fröhlich, advances in molecular genetic laboratory techniques have allowed us to elucidate various components of the intricate neurocircuitry governing appetite and weight regulation connecting the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, brainstem, adipose tissue, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract. On a background of an increasing prevalence of population-level common obesity, the number of survivors of congenital (eg, septo-optic dysplasia, Prader-Willi syndrome) and acquired (eg, central nervous system tumors) hypothalamic disorders is increasing, thanks to earlier diagnosis and management as well as better oncological therapies...
May 7, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
David J Handelsman
Elite individual sports in which success depends on power, speed or endurance are conventionally divided into male and female events using traditional binary definitions of sex. Male puberty creates durable physical advantages due to the 20-30-fold increase in circulating testosterone producing a sustained uplift in men's muscle, bone, hemoglobin, and cardiorespiratory function resulting from male puberty and sustained during men's lives. These male physical advantages provide strong justification for separate protected category of female events allowing women to achieve the fame and fortune from success they would be denied if competing against men...
April 5, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Jack Lockett, Warrick J Inder, Vicki L Clifton
Glucocorticoids exert pleiotropic effects on all tissues to regulate cellular and metabolic homeostasis. Synthetic forms are used therapeutically in a wide range of conditions for their anti-inflammatory benefits at the cost of dose and duration-dependent side effects. Significant variability occurs between tissues, disease states, and individuals with regard to both the beneficial and deleterious effects. The glucocorticoid receptor is the site of action for these hormones and a vast body of work has been conducted understanding its function...
March 29, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
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March 22, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Masayoshi Suda, Karl H Paul, Utkarsh Tripathi, Tohru Minamino, Tamara Tchkonia, James L Kirkland
Multiple changes occur in hormonal regulation with aging and across various endocrine organs. These changes are associated with multiple age-related disorders and diseases. A better understanding of responsible underling biological mechanisms could help in the management of multiple endocrine disorders over and above hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Cellular senescence is involved in multiple biological aging processes and pathologies common in elderly individuals. Cellular senescence, which occurs in many older individuals but also across the lifespan in association with tissue damage, acute and chronic diseases, certain drugs, and genetic syndromes, may contribute to such endocrine disorders as osteoporosis, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
March 19, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Angeliki M Angelidi, Konstantinos Stefanakis, Sharon H Chou, Laura Valenzuela-Vallejo, Konstantina Dipla, Chrysoula Boutari, Konstantinos Ntoskas, Panagiotis Tokmakidis, Alexander Kokkinos, Dimitrios G Goulis, Helen A Papadaki, Christos S Mantzoros
Research on lean, energy-deficient athletic and military cohorts has broadened the concept of the Female Athlete Triad into the Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (REDs) syndrome. REDs represents a spectrum of abnormalities induced by low energy availability (LEA), which serves as the underlying cause of all symptoms described within the REDs concept, affecting exercising populations of either biological sex. Both short- and long-term LEA, in conjunction with other moderating factors, may produce a multitude of maladaptive changes that impair various physiological systems and adversely affect health, well-being, and sport performance...
March 15, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Robert L Rosenfield
From 1965-2015, immense strides were made into understanding the mechanisms underlying the common androgen excess disorders, premature adrenarche and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The author reviews the critical discoveries of this era from his perspective investigating these disorders, commencing with his early discoveries of the unique pattern of plasma androgens in premature adrenarche and the elevation of an index of the plasma free testosterone concentration in most hirsute women. The molecular genetic basis, though not the developmental biologic basis, for adrenarche is now known and 11-oxytestosterones shown to be major bioactive adrenal androgens...
March 8, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Julia Rohayem, Emma C Alexander, Sabine Heger, Anna Nordenström, Sasha R Howard
There are 3 physiological waves of central hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis activity over the lifetime. The first occurs during fetal life, the second-termed "mini-puberty"-in the first months after birth, and the third at puberty. After adolescence, the axis remains active all through adulthood. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a deficiency in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion or action. In cases of severe CHH, all 3 waves of GnRH pulsatility are absent...
March 4, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Alicja A Skowronski, Rudolph L Leibel, Charles A LeDuc
This review analyzes the published evidence regarding maternal factors that influence the developmental programming of long-term adiposity in humans and animals via the central nervous system (CNS). We describe the physiological outcomes of perinatal underfeeding and overfeeding and explore potential mechanisms that may mediate the impact of such exposures on the development of feeding circuits within the CNS-including the influences of metabolic hormones and epigenetic changes. The perinatal environment, reflective of maternal nutritional status, contributes to the programming of offspring adiposity...
March 4, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Marisel Rosell-Díaz, José Manuel Fernández-Real
The decline in cognitive function and the prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders are among the most serious threats to health in old age. The prevalence of dementia has reached 50 million people worldwide and has become a major public health problem. The causes of age-related cognitive impairment are multiple, complex, and difficult to determine. However, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is linked to an enhanced risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Human studies have shown that patients with T2D exhibit dysbiosis of the gut microbiota...
March 4, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Pei Chia Eng, Maria Phylactou, Ambreen Qayum, Casper Woods, Hayoung Lee, Sara Aziz, Benedict Moore, Alexander D Miras, Alexander N Comninos, Tricia Tan, Steve Franks, Waljit S Dhillo, Ali Abbara
Obesity-related hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is a well-characterized condition in men (termed male obesity-related secondary hypogonadism; MOSH); however, an equivalent condition has not been as clearly described in women. The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is known to increase with obesity, but PCOS is more typically characterized by increased gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) (and by proxy luteinizing hormone; LH) pulsatility, rather than by the reduced gonadotropin levels observed in MOSH...
March 4, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Claudia E Ramirez Bustamante, Neeti Agarwal, Aaron R Cox, Sean M Hartig, Jordan E Lake, Ashok Balasubramanyam
Over the past 4 decades, the clinical care of people living with HIV (PLWH) evolved from treatment of acute opportunistic infections to the management of chronic, noncommunicable comorbidities. Concurrently, our understanding of adipose tissue function matured to acknowledge its important endocrine contributions to energy balance. PLWH experience changes in the mass and composition of adipose tissue depots before and after initiating antiretroviral therapy, including regional loss (lipoatrophy), gain (lipohypertrophy), or mixed lipodystrophy...
March 4, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Ondrej Uher, Katerina Hadrava Vanova, David Taieb, Bruna Calsina, Mercedes Robledo, Roderick Clifton-Bligh, Karel Pacak
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors derived from neural crest cells from adrenal medullary chromaffin tissues or extra-adrenal paraganglia, respectively. Although the current treatment for PPGLs is surgery, optimal treatment options for advanced and metastatic cases have been limited. Hence, understanding the role of the immune system in PPGL tumorigenesis can provide essential knowledge for the development of better therapeutic and tumor management strategies, especially for those with advanced and metastatic PPGLs...
February 20, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
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