Endocrine Reviews

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January 11, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Shana E McCormack, James E Blevins, Elizabeth A Lawson
There is growing evidence that oxytocin (OXT), a hypothalamic hormone well recognized for its effects in inducing parturition and lactation, has important metabolic effects in both sexes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the physiologic effects of OXT on metabolism and to explore its therapeutic potential for metabolic disorders. In model systems, OXT promotes weight loss by decreasing energy intake. Pair-feeding studies suggest that OXT-induced weight loss may also be partly due to increased energy expenditure and/or lipolysis...
December 5, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Alexander W Fischer, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
Animals that lack the hormone leptin become grossly obese, purportedly for two reasons: increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure (thermogenesis). This review examines the experimental evidence for the thermogenesis component. Analysis of the data available lead us to conclude that the reports indicating hypometabolism in the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice (as well as in the leptin-receptor-deficient db/db mice and fa/fa rats) derive from a misleading calculation artefact resulting from expression of energy expenditure per g body weight and not per intact organism...
November 27, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Stefan Groeneweg, Ferdy S van Geest, Robin P Peeters, Heike Heuer, W Edward Visser
Thyroid hormone transporters at the plasma membrane govern intracellular bioavailability of thyroid hormone. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 8 and MCT10, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1C1 and SLC17A4 are currently known as transporters displaying highest specificity towards thyroid hormones. Structure-function studies using homology modelling and mutational screens have led to better understanding of the molecular basis of thyroid hormone transport. Mutations in MCT8 and in OATP1C1 have been associated with clinical disorders...
November 22, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Iliana C Lega, Lorraine L Lipscombe
Obesity and diabetes have both been associated with an increased risk of cancer. In the face of increasing obesity and diabetes rates worldwide, this is a worrying trend for cancer rates. Factors such as hyperinsulinemia, chronic inflammation, anti-hyperglycemic medications and shared risk factors have all been identified as potential mechanisms underlying the relationship. The most common obesity- and diabetes-related cancers are endometrial, colorectal and post menopausal breast cancers. In this review, we summarize the existing evidence that describes the complex relationship between obesity, diabetes and cancer focusing on epidemiologic and pathophysiologic evidence, also reviewing the role of anti-hyperglycemic agents, novel research approaches such as Mendelian Randomization as well as methodologic limitations of existing research...
November 13, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Panpan Chen, Barry R Zirkin, Haolin Chen
Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism) affects males of all ages. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is effective in restoring serum testosterone and relieving symptoms. TRT, however, is reported to have possible adverse side-effects in part because testosterone is administered, not produced in response to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Progress in stem cell biology offers potential alternatives for treating hypogonadism. Adult Leydig cells (ALCs) are generated by stem Leydig cells (SLCs) during puberty...
November 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Alison M Boyce, Michael T Collins
Fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright syndrome (FD/MAS) is a rare disorder of striking complexity. It arises from somatic, gain-of-function mutations in GNAS, leading to mosaic Gαs activation and inappropriate production of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP). The clinical phenotype is largely determined by the location and extent of affected tissues, and the pathophysiologic effects of Gαs activation within these tissues. In bone, Gαs activation results in impaired differentiation of skeletal stem cells, leading to discrete skeletal lesions prone to fracture, deformity, and pain...
November 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Camilla Scheele, Christian Wolfrum
Infants rely on brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a primary source of thermogenesis. In some adult humans, residuals of brown adipose tissue are adjacent to the central nervous system and acute activation increase metabolic rate. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) recruitment occurs during cold acclimation and include secretion of factors, known as batokines, which target several different cell types within the BAT, and promote adipogenesis, angiogenesis, immune cell interactions and neurite outgrowth. All these processes seem to act in concert to promote an adapted BAT...
October 22, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Yuliya Lytvyn, Petter Bjornstad, Daniel H van Raalte, Hiddo L Heerspink, David Z I Cherney
Diabetic kidney disease remains the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease in the world. Despite reductions in incidence rates of myocardial infarction and stroke in people with diabetes over the past 3 decades, the risk of diabetic kidney disease has remained unchanged, and may even be increasing in younger individuals afflicted with this disease. Accordingly, changes in public health policy have to be implemented to address the root causes of diabetic kidney disease, including the rise of obesity and diabetes, in addition to the use of safe and effective pharmacological agents to prevent cardiorenal complications in people with diabetes...
October 21, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Elizabeth A Killion, Shu-Chen Lu, Madeline Fort, Yuichiro Yamada, Murielle M Véniant, David J Lloyd
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) is associated with obesity in human genome-wide association studies. Similarly, mouse genetic studies indicate that loss of function alleles and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide overexpression both protect from high-fat diet-induced weight gain. Together, these data provide compelling evidence to develop therapies targeting GIPR for the treatment of obesity. Further, both antagonists and agonists alone prevent weight gain, but result in remarkable weight loss when codosed or molecularly combined with glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs preclinically...
January 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Donald S A McLeod, Ling Zhang, Cosimo Durante, David S Cooper
An ever-increasing population of patients with papillary thyroid cancer is engaging with health care systems around the world. Numerous questions about optimal management have arisen that challenge conventional paradigms. This is particularly the case for patients with low-risk disease, who comprise most new patients. At the same time, new therapies for patients with advanced disease are also being introduced, which may have the potential to prolong life. This review discusses selected controversial issues in adult papillary thyroid cancer management at both ends of the disease spectrum...
December 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Maria E Cabanillas, Mabel Ryder, Camilo Jimenez
The treatment of advanced thyroid cancer has undergone rapid evolution in the last decade, with multiple kinase inhibitor drug approvals for each subtype of thyroid cancer and a number of other commercially available drugs that have been studied for this indication. Although most of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs are antiangiogenic multikinase inhibitors-vandetanib, cabozantinib, sorafenib, lenvatinib-there are two FDA indications that are mutation specific-dabrafenib/trametinib for BRAF-mutated anaplastic thyroid cancer and larotrectinib for NTRK-fusion thyroid cancer...
December 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Karl-Heinz Storbeck, Lina Schiffer, Elizabeth S Baranowski, Vasileios Chortis, Alessandro Prete, Lise Barnard, Lorna C Gilligan, Angela E Taylor, Jan Idkowiak, Wiebke Arlt, Cedric H L Shackleton
Steroid biosynthesis and metabolism are reflected by the serum steroid metabolome and, in even more detail, by the 24-hour urine steroid metabolome, which can provide unique insights into alterations of steroid flow and output indicative of underlying conditions. Mass spectrometry-based steroid metabolome profiling has allowed for the identification of unique multisteroid signatures associated with disorders of steroid biosynthesis and metabolism that can be used for personalized approaches to diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and prognostic prediction...
December 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Rayhan A Lal, Laya Ekhlaspour, Korey Hood, Bruce Buckingham
Recent, rapid changes in the treatment of type 1 diabetes have allowed for commercialization of an "artificial pancreas" that is better described as a closed-loop controller of insulin delivery. This review presents the current state of closed-loop control systems and expected future developments with a discussion of the human factor issues in allowing automation of glucose control. The goal of these systems is to minimize or prevent both short-term and long-term complications from diabetes and to decrease the daily burden of managing diabetes...
December 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Marjon A Smit, Caroline M J van Kinschot, Joke van der Linden, Charlotte van Noord, Snježana Kos
PTH is an important regulator of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and bone remodeling. It is metabolized into PTH fragments, which are measured to a different extent by PTH assays of different generations because of differences in fragments recognized and lack of assay standardization. PTH is measured in the workup of several conditions, and clinical guidelines provide recommendations concerning these measurements. This review provides an overview of the impact of differences between PTH assays, applying distinct clinical guidelines for primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism and perioperative use of PTH measurements...
December 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Antonino Di Pino, Ralph A DeFronzo
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at high risk for macrovascular complications, which represent the major cause of mortality. Despite effective treatment of established cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (dyslipidemia, hypertension, procoagulant state), there remains a significant amount of unexplained CV risk. Insulin resistance is associated with a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors known collectively as the insulin resistance (metabolic) syndrome (IRS). Considerable evidence, reviewed herein, suggests that insulin resistance and the IRS contribute to this unexplained CV risk in patients with T2DM...
December 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Thomas Marjot, Ahmad Moolla, Jeremy F Cobbold, Leanne Hodson, Jeremy W Tomlinson
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of disease, extending from simple steatosis, through to inflammation and fibrosis with a significant risk for the development of cirrhosis. It is highly prevalent and is associated with significant adverse outcomes both through liver-specific morbidity and mortality, but perhaps more importantly, through adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes. It is tightly associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity and both of these conditions drive progressive disease towards the more advanced stages...
October 20, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Zachary L Sebo, Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Gene P Ables, Dieter M Lindskog, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Pouneh K Fazeli, Mark C Horowitz
The presence of adipocytes in mammalian bone marrow (BM) has been recognized histologically for decades, yet, until recently, these cells have received little attention from the research community. Advancements in mouse transgenics and imaging methods, particularly in the last 10 years, have permitted more detailed examinations of marrow adipocytes than ever before and yielded data that show these cells are critical regulators of the BM microenvironment and whole-body metabolism. Indeed, marrow adipocytes are anatomically and functionally separate from brown, beige, and classic white adipocytes...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Matthew J Watt, Paula M Miotto, William De Nardo, Magdalene K Montgomery
The liver is a dynamic organ that plays critical roles in many physiological processes, including the regulation of systemic glucose and lipid metabolism. Dysfunctional hepatic lipid metabolism is a cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disorder worldwide, and is closely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Through the use of advanced mass spectrometry "omics" approaches and detailed experimentation in cells, mice, and humans, we now understand that the liver secretes a wide array of proteins, metabolites, and noncoding RNAs (miRNAs) and that many of these secreted factors exert powerful effects on metabolic processes both in the liver and in peripheral tissues...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
Marialetizia Rastelli, Patrice D Cani, Claude Knauf
The gut microbiome is considered an organ contributing to the regulation of host metabolism. Since the relationship between the gut microbiome and specific diseases was elucidated, numerous studies have deciphered molecular mechanisms explaining how gut bacteria interact with host cells and eventually shape metabolism. Both metagenomic and metabolomic analyses have contributed to the discovery of bacterial-derived metabolites acting on host cells. In this review, we examine the molecular mechanisms by which bacterial metabolites act as paracrine or endocrine factors, thereby regulating host metabolism...
October 1, 2019: Endocrine Reviews
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