Vasantha Padmanabhan, Wenhui Song, Muraly Puttabyatappa
The burden of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth and low birth weight is considerable across the world. Several risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes have been identified. One risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes that is receiving considerable attention in recent years is gestational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Humans are exposed to multitude of environmental chemicals with known endocrine disrupting properties and evidence suggest that exposure to these EDCs have the potential to disrupt maternal-fetal environment culminating in adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes...
January 3, 2021: Endocrine Reviews
Manita Shakya, Iris Lindberg
The kexin-like proprotein convertases perform the initial proteolytic cleavages that ultimately generate a variety of different mature peptide and proteins, ranging from brain neuropeptides, to endocrine peptide hormones, to structural proteins, among others. In this review, we present a general introduction to proprotein convertase structure and biochemistry, followed by a comprehensive discussion of each member of the kexin-like subfamily of proprotein convertases. We summarize current knowledge of human proprotein convertase insufficiency syndromes, including genome-wide analyses of convertase polymorphisms, and compare these to convertase null and mutant mouse models...
December 31, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Arthur D Riggs
In the mid to late 1970s recombinant DNA methods for cloning and expressing genes in E. coli were under intense development. An important question had become: Can humans design and chemically synthesize novel genes that function in bacteria? This question was answered in 1978 and 1979 with the successful expression in E. coli of two mammalian hormones, first somatostatin and then human insulin. The successful production of human insulin in bacteria provided, for the first time, a practical, scalable source of human insulin and resulted in the approval, in 1982, of human insulin for the treatment of diabetics...
December 19, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Brent A McLean, Chi Kin Wong, Jonathan E Campbell, David J Hodson, Stefan Trapp, Daniel J Drucker
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in gut endocrine cells and in the brain, and acts through hormonal and neural pathways to regulate islet function, satiety, and gut motility, supporting development of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. Classic notions of GLP-1 acting as a meal-stimulated hormone from the distal gut are challenged by data supporting production of GLP-1 in the endocrine pancreas, and by the importance of brain-derived GLP-1 in the control of neural activity...
December 15, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Maria Luisa Brandi, Sunita K Agarwal, Nancy D Perrier, Kate E Lines, Gerlof D Valk, Rajesh V Thakker
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1), a rare tumor syndrome that is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, is continuing to raise great interest for endocrinology, gastroenterology, surgery, radiology, genetics and molecular biology specialists. There have been two major clinical practice guidance papers that were published in the past two decades, with the most recent publication 8 years ago. Since then, several new insights on the basic biology and clinical features of MEN1 have appeared in the literature and those data are discussed in this review...
November 28, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Braulio A Marfil-Garza, Joshua Hefler, Mario Bermudez De Leon, Rena Pawlick, Nidheesh Dadheech, A M James Shapiro
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have become highly relevant in the pathophysiology and treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). As these cells are known to be defective in T1D, recent efforts have explored ex vivo and in vivo Treg expansion and enhancement as a means for restoring self-tolerance in this disease. Given their capacity to also modulate alloimmune responses, studies using Treg-based therapies have recently been undertaken in transplantation. Islet transplantation provides a unique opportunity to study the critical immunological crossroads between auto and alloimmunity...
November 28, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Mamatha Bhat, Shirine E Usmani, Amirhossein Azhie, Minna Woo
Metabolic complications affect over 50% of solid organ transplant recipients. These include post-transplant diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Pre-existing metabolic disease is further exacerbated with immunosuppression and post-transplant weight gain. Patients transition from a state of cachexia induced by end-organ disease to a pro-anabolic state after transplant due to weight gain, sedentary lifestyle and suboptimal dietary habits in the setting of immunosuppression. Specific immunosuppressants have different metabolic effects, though all the foundation/maintenance immunosuppressants (CNIs, mTOR inhibitors) increase the risk of metabolic disease...
November 28, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Sandra Pereira, Daemon L Cline, Maria M Glavas, Scott D Covey, Timothy J Kieffer
The discovery of leptin was intrinsically associated with its ability to regulate body weight. However, the effects of leptin are more far-reaching and include profound glucose-lowering and anti-lipogenic effects, independent of leptin's regulation of body weight. Regulation of glucose metabolism by leptin is mediated both centrally and via peripheral tissues and is influenced by the activation status of insulin signaling pathways. Ectopic fat accumulation is diminished by both central and peripheral leptin, an effect that is beneficial in obesity-associated disorders...
November 5, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
William B Horton, Eugene J Barrett
This review takes an inclusive approach to microvascular dysfunction in diabetes mellitus and cardiometabolic disease. In virtually every organ, dynamic interactions between the microvasculature and resident tissue elements normally modulate vascular and tissue function in a homeostatic fashion. This regulation is disordered by diabetes mellitus, by hypertension, by obesity, and by dyslipidemia individually (or combined in cardiometabolic disease), with dysfunction serving as an early marker of change. In particular, we suggest that the familiar retinal, renal, and neural complications of diabetes mellitus are late-stage manifestations of microvascular injury that begins years earlier and is often abetted by other cardiometabolic disease elements (e...
October 30, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
(no author information available yet)
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December 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Johanne Grosbois, Melody Devos, Isabelle Demeestere
In recent years, ovarian tissue cryopreservation has rapidly developed as a successful method for preserving the fertility of girls and young women with cancer or benign conditions requiring gonadotoxic therapy, and is now becoming widely recognized as an effective alternative to oocyte and embryo freezing when not feasible. Primordial follicles are the most abundant population of follicles in the ovary, and their relatively quiescent metabolism makes them more resistant to cryoinjury. This dormant pool represents a key target for fertility preservation strategies as a resource for generating high-quality oocytes...
December 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Vinaya Srirangam Nadhamuni, Márta Korbonits
Substantial advances have been made recently in the pathobiology of pituitary tumors. Similar to many other endocrine tumors, over the last few years we have recognized the role of germline and somatic mutations in a number of syndromic or nonsyndromic conditions with pituitary tumor predisposition. These include the identification of novel germline variants in patients with familial or simplex pituitary tumors and establishment of novel somatic variants identified through next generation sequencing. Advanced techniques have allowed the exploration of epigenetic mechanisms mediated through DNA methylation, histone modifications and noncoding RNAs, such as microRNA, long noncoding RNAs and circular RNAs...
December 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Xiaoming Hu, Feifan Guo
Sensing and responding to changes in nutrient levels, including those of glucose, lipids and amino acids, by the body is necessary for survival. Accordingly, perturbations in nutrient sensing are tightly linked with human pathologies, particularly metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and other complications of metabolic syndromes. The conventional view is that amino acids are fundamental elements for protein and peptide synthesis, while recent studies have revealed that amino acids are also important bioactive molecules that play key roles in signaling pathway and metabolic regulation...
October 14, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Joep Beumer, Helmuth Gehart, Hans Clevers
The recent intersection of enteroendocrine cell biology with single-cell technologies and novel in vitro model systems has generated a tremendous amount of new data. Here we highlight these recent developments and explore how these findings contribute to the understanding of endocrine lineages in the gut. In particular, the concept of hormonal plasticity, the ability of endocrine cells to produce different hormones over the course of their lifetime, challenges the classic notion of cell types. Enteroendocrine cells travel in the course of their life through different signaling environments that directly influence their hormonal repertoire...
October 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Rodolfo J Galindo, Roy W Beck, Maria F Scioscia, Guillermo E Umpierrez, Katherine R Tuttle
Glucose and insulin metabolism in patients with diabetes are profoundly altered by advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Risk of hypoglycemia is increased by failure of kidney gluconeogenesis, impaired insulin clearance by the kidney, defective insulin degradation due to uremia, increased erythrocyte glucose uptake during hemodialysis, impaired counterregulatory hormone responses (cortisol, growth hormone), nutritional deprivation, and variability of exposure to oral antihyperglycemic agents and exogenous insulin...
October 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Yong Hoon Kim, Mitchell A Lazar
All biological processes, living organisms, and ecosystems have evolved with the Sun that confers a 24-hour periodicity to life on Earth. Circadian rhythms arose from evolutionary needs to maximize daily organismal fitness by enabling organisms to mount anticipatory and adaptive responses to recurrent light-dark cycles and associated environmental changes. The clock is a conserved feature in nearly all forms of life, ranging from prokaryotes to virtually every cell of multicellular eukaryotes. The mammalian clock comprises transcription factors interlocked in negative feedback loops, which generate circadian expression of genes that coordinate rhythmic physiology...
October 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Md Soriful Islam, Sadia Afrin, Sara Isabel Jones, James Segars
Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) are a new class of compounds developed to target the progesterone receptor (PR) with a mix of agonist and antagonist properties. These compounds have been introduced for the treatment of several gynecological conditions based on the critical role of progesterone in reproduction and reproductive tissues. In patients with uterine fibroids, mifepristone and ulipristal acetate have consistently demonstrated efficacy, and vilaprisan is currently under investigation, while studies of asoprisnil and telapristone were halted for safety concerns...
October 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Traci E LaMoia, Gerald I Shulman
Metformin is a first-line therapy for the treatment for type 2 diabetes due to its robust glucose-lowering effects, well-established safety profile and relatively low cost. While metformin has been shown to have pleotropic effects on glucose metabolism, there is a general consensus that the major glucose lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes is mostly mediated through inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, despite decades of research, the mechanism by which metformin inhibits this process is still highly debated...
September 8, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
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