David J Handelsman
Elite individual sports in which success depends on power, speed or endurance are conventionally divided into male and female events using traditional binary definitions of sex. Male puberty creates durable physical advantages due to the 20-30-fold increase in circulating testosterone producing a sustained uplift in men's muscle, bone, hemoglobin, and cardiorespiratory function resulting from male puberty and sustained during men's lives. These male physical advantages provide strong justification for separate protected category of female events allowing women to achieve the fame and fortune from success they would be denied if competing against men...
April 5, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Jack Lockett, Warrick J Inder, Vicki L Clifton
Glucocorticoids exert pleiotropic effects on all tissues to regulate cellular and metabolic homeostasis. Synthetic forms are used therapeutically in a wide range of conditions for their anti-inflammatory benefits at the cost of dose and duration-dependent side effects. Significant variability occurs between tissues, disease states, and individuals with regard to both the beneficial and deleterious effects. The glucocorticoid receptor is the site of action for these hormones and a vast body of work has been conducted understanding its function...
March 29, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Masayoshi Suda, Karl H Paul, Utkarsh Tripathi, Tohru Minamino, Tamara Tchkonia, James L Kirkland
Multiple changes occur in hormonal regulation with aging and across various endocrine organs. These changes are associated with multiple age-related disorders and diseases. A better understanding of responsible underling biological mechanisms could help in the management of multiple endocrine disorders over and above hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Cellular senescence is involved in multiple biological aging processes and pathologies common in elderly individuals. Cellular senescence, which occurs in many older individuals but also across the lifespan in association with tissue damage, acute and chronic diseases, certain drugs, and genetic syndromes, may contribute to such endocrine disorders as osteoporosis, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
March 19, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Angeliki M Angelidi, Konstantinos Stefanakis, Sharon H Chou, Laura Valenzuela-Vallejo, Konstantina Dipla, Chrysoula Boutari, Konstantinos Ntoskas, Panagiotis Tokmakidis, Alexander Kokkinos, Dimitrios G Goulis, Helen A Papadaki, Christos S Mantzoros
Research on lean, energy-deficient athletic and military cohorts has broadened the concept of the Female Athlete Triad into the Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (REDs) syndrome. REDs represents a spectrum of abnormalities induced by low energy availability (LEA), which serves as the underlying cause of all symptoms described within the REDs concept, affecting exercising populations of either biological sex. Both short- and long-term LEA, in conjunction with other moderating factors, may produce a multitude of maladaptive changes that impair various physiological systems and adversely affect health, well-being, and sport performance...
March 15, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Robert L Rosenfield
From 1965-2015, immense strides were made into understanding the mechanisms underlying the common androgen excess disorders, premature adrenarche and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The author reviews the critical discoveries of this era from his perspective investigating these disorders, commencing with his early discoveries of the unique pattern of plasma androgens in premature adrenarche and the elevation of an index of the plasma free testosterone concentration in most hirsute women. The molecular genetic basis, though not the developmental biologic basis, for adrenarche is now known and 11-oxytestosterones shown to be major bioactive adrenal androgens...
March 8, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Julia Rohayem, Emma C Alexander, Sabine Heger, Anna Nordenström, Sasha R Howard
There are 3 physiological waves of central hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis activity over the lifetime. The first occurs during fetal life, the second-termed "mini-puberty"-in the first months after birth, and the third at puberty. After adolescence, the axis remains active all through adulthood. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a deficiency in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion or action. In cases of severe CHH, all 3 waves of GnRH pulsatility are absent...
March 4, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Ondrej Uher, Katerina Hadrava Vanova, David Taieb, Bruna Calsina, Mercedes Robledo, Roderick Clifton-Bligh, Karel Pacak
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors derived from neural crest cells from adrenal medullary chromaffin tissues or extra-adrenal paraganglia, respectively. Although the current treatment for PPGLs is surgery, optimal treatment options for advanced and metastatic cases have been limited. Hence, understanding the role of the immune system in PPGL tumorigenesis can provide essential knowledge for the development of better therapeutic and tumor management strategies, especially for those with advanced and metastatic PPGLs...
February 20, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Natalie Yy Koh, Justyna J Miszkiewicz, Mary Louise Fac, Natalie Ky Wee, Natalie A Sims
Preclinical models (typically the ovariectomized rat and genetically altered mice) have underpinned much of what we know about skeletal biology. They have been pivotal for developing therapies for osteoporosis and monogenic skeletal conditions, including osteogenesis imperfecta, achondroplasia, hypophosphatasia, and craniodysplasias. Further therapeutic advances, particularly to improve cortical strength, requires improved understanding and more rigorous use and reporting. We describe here how trabecular and cortical bone structure develop, are maintained, and degenerate with ageing in mice, rats, and humans, and how cortical bone structure is changed in preclinical models of endocrine conditions (e...
February 5, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Yi Chen, Guiquan Wang, Jingqiao Chen, Congying Wang, Xi Dong, Hsun-Ming Chang, Shuai Yuan, Yue Zhao, Liangshan Mu
The treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) faces challenges as all known treatments are merely symptomatic. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any drug specifically for treating PCOS. As the significance of genetics and epigenetics rises in drug development, their pivotal insights have greatly enhanced the efficacy and success of drug target discovery and validation, offering promise for guiding the advancement of PCOS treatments. In this context, we outline the genetic and epigenetic advancement in PCOS, which provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of this complex disease...
January 31, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Marisel Rosell-Díaz, José Manuel Fernández-Real
The decline in cognitive function and the prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders are among the most serious threats to health in old age. The prevalence of dementia has reached 50 million people worldwide and has become a major public health problem. The causes of age-related cognitive impairment are multiple, complex, and difficult to determine. However, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is linked to an enhanced risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Human studies have shown that patients with T2D exhibit dysbiosis of the gut microbiota...
March 4, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Claudia E Ramirez Bustamante, Neeti Agarwal, Aaron R Cox, Sean M Hartig, Jordan E Lake, Ashok Balasubramanyam
Over the past 4 decades, the clinical care of people living with HIV (PLWH) evolved from treatment of acute opportunistic infections to the management of chronic, noncommunicable comorbidities. Concurrently, our understanding of adipose tissue function matured to acknowledge its important endocrine contributions to energy balance. PLWH experience changes in the mass and composition of adipose tissue depots before and after initiating antiretroviral therapy, including regional loss (lipoatrophy), gain (lipohypertrophy), or mixed lipodystrophy...
March 4, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Julio Rosenstock, Rattan Juneja, John M Beals, Julie S Moyers, Liza Ilag, Rory J McCrimmon
Basal insulin continues to be a vital part of therapy for many people with diabetes. First attempts to prolong the duration of insulin formulations were through the development of suspensions that required homogenization prior to injection. These insulins, which required once- or twice-daily injections, introduced wide variations in insulin exposure contributing to unpredictable effects on glycemia. Advances over the last 2 decades have resulted in long-acting, soluble basal insulin analogues with prolonged and less variable pharmacokinetic exposure, improving their efficacy and safety, notably by reducing nocturnal hypoglycemia...
January 16, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Henri J L M Timmers, David Taïeb, Karel Pacak, Jacques W M Lenders
Pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas are unique in their highly variable molecular landscape driven by genetic alterations, either germline or somatic. These mutations translate into different clusters with distinct tumor locations, biochemical/metabolomic features, tumor cell characteristics (e.g. receptors, transporters) and disease course. Such tumor heterogeneity calls for different imaging strategies in order to provide proper diagnosis and follow-up. This also warrants selection of the most appropriate and locally available imaging modalities tailored to an individual patient based on consideration of many relevant factors including age, (anticipated) tumor location(s), size and multifocality, underlying genotype, biochemical phenotype, chance of metastases as well as the patient's personal preference and treatment goals...
January 11, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Nathan Mullen, James Curneen, Padraig T Donlon, Punit Prakash, Irina Bancos, Mark Gurnell, Michael C Dennedy
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality when compared with blood pressure-matched cases of primary hypertension. Current limitations in patient care stem from delayed recognition of the condition, limited access to key diagnostic procedures, and lack of a definitive therapy option for nonsurgical candidates. However, several recent advances have the potential to address these barriers to optimal care. From a diagnostic perspective, machine-learning algorithms have shown promise in the prediction of PA subtypes, while the development of noninvasive alternatives to adrenal vein sampling (including molecular positron emission tomography imaging) has made accurate localization of functioning adrenal nodules possible...
January 4, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Bijal Patel, Kanyada Koysombat, Edouard G Mills, Jovanna Tsoutsouki, Alexander N Comninos, Ali Abbara, Waljit S Dhillo
Kisspeptin (KP) and neurokinin B (NKB) are neuropeptides that govern the reproductive endocrine axis through regulating hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal activity and pulsatile GnRH secretion. Their critical role in reproductive health was first identified after inactivating variants in genes encoding for KP or NKB signaling were shown to result in congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and a failure of pubertal development. Over the past 2 decades since their discovery, a wealth of evidence from both basic and translational research has laid the foundation for potential therapeutic applications...
January 4, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Yuhu Zhao, Xiaole Peng, Qing Wang, Zhiyu Zhang, Liangliang Wang, Yaozeng Xu, Huilin Yang, Jiaxiang Bai, Dechun Geng
The homeostasis of bone microenvironment is the foundation of bone health and comprises 2 concerted events: bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. In the early 21st century, leptin, an adipocytes-derived hormone, was found to affect bone homeostasis through hypothalamic relay and the sympathetic nervous system, involving neurotransmitters like serotonin and norepinephrine. This discovery has provided a new perspective regarding the synergistic effects of endocrine and nervous systems on skeletal homeostasis...
January 4, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Vladimir Saenko, Norisato Mitsutake
Radiation is an environmental factor that elevates the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Actual and possible scenarios of exposures to external and internal radiation are multiple and diverse. This article reviews radiation doses to the thyroid and corresponding cancer risks due to planned, existing, and emergency exposure situations, and medical, public, and occupational categories of exposures. Any exposure scenario may deliver a range of doses to the thyroid, and the risk for cancer is addressed along with modifying factors...
January 4, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
Gregory L Hundemer, Alexander A Leung, Gregory A Kline, Jenifer M Brown, Adina F Turcu, Anand Vaidya
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is an endocrinopathy characterized by dysregulated aldosterone production that occurs despite suppression of renin and angiotensin II, and that is non-suppressible by volume and sodium loading. The effectiveness of surgical adrenalectomy for patients with lateralizing PA is characterized by the attenuation of excess aldosterone production leading to blood pressure reduction, correction of hypokalemia, and increases in renin-biomarkers that collectively indicate a reversal of PA pathophysiology and restoration of normal physiology...
January 4, 2024: Endocrine Reviews
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