Traci E LaMoia, Gerald I Shulman
Metformin is a first-line therapy for the treatment for type 2 diabetes due to its robust glucose-lowering effects, well-established safety profile and relatively low cost. While metformin has been shown to have pleotropic effects on glucose metabolism, there is a general consensus that the major glucose lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes is mostly mediated through inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, despite decades of research, the mechanism by which metformin inhibits this process is still highly debated...
September 8, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Laura C Lane, Tim D Cheetham, Petros Perros, Simon H S Pearce
Graves' hyperthyroidism is characterised by the presence of autoantibodies that stimulate the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), resulting in uncontrolled secretion of excessive thyroid hormone. Conventional treatments including antithyroid medication, radioiodine or surgery have remained largely unchanged for the past 70 years and either lack efficacy for many patients, or result in lifelong thyroid hormone replacement therapy in the case of the latter two options. The demand for new therapeutic options combined with greater insight into basic immunobiology, has led to the emergence of novel approaches to treat Graves' hyperthyroidism...
August 26, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Johanne Grosbois, Melody Devos, Isabelle Demeestere
In recent years, ovarian tissue cryopreservation has rapidly developed as a successful method for preserving the fertility of girls and young women with cancer or benign conditions requiring gonadotoxic therapy, and is now becoming widely recognized as an effective alternative to oocyte and embryo freezing when not feasible. Primordial follicles are the most abundant population of follicles in the ovary, and their relatively quiescent metabolism makes them more resistant to cryoinjury. This dormant pool represents a key target for fertility preservation strategies as a resource for generating high quality oocytes...
August 6, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
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December 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Yong Hoon Kim, Mitchell A Lazar
All biological processes, living organisms, and ecosystems have evolved with the Sun that confers a 24-hour periodicity to life on Earth. Circadian rhythms arose from evolutionary needs to maximize daily organismal fitness by enabling organisms to mount anticipatory and adaptive responses to recurrent light-dark cycles and associated environmental changes. The clock is a conserved feature in nearly all forms of life, ranging from prokaryotes to virtually every cell of multicellular eukaryotes. The mammalian clock comprises transcription factors interlocked in negative feedback loops, which generate circadian expression of genes that coordinate rhythmic physiology...
October 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Md Soriful Islam, Sadia Afrin, Sara Isabel Jones, James Segars
Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) are a new class of compounds developed to target the progesterone receptor (PR) with a mix of agonist and antagonist properties. These compounds have been introduced for the treatment of several gynecological conditions based on the critical role of progesterone in reproduction and reproductive tissues. In patients with uterine fibroids, mifepristone and ulipristal acetate have consistently demonstrated efficacy, and vilaprisan is currently under investigation, while studies of asoprisnil and telapristone were halted for safety concerns...
October 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Jia Zhu, Florian Eichler, Alessandra Biffi, Christine N Duncan, David A Williams, Joseph A Majzoub
Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a rare X-linked disorder of peroxisomal oxidation due to mutations in ABCD1. It is a progressive condition with a variable clinical spectrum that includes primary adrenal insufficiency, myelopathy, and cerebral ALD. Adrenal insufficiency affects over 80% of ALD patients. Cerebral ALD affects one-third of boys under the age of 12 and progresses to total disability and death without treatment. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only disease-modifying therapy if completed in the early stages of cerebral ALD, but it does not affect the course of adrenal insufficiency...
August 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Samuel M Lockhart, Vladimir Saudek, Stephen O'Rahilly
GDF15 has recently gained scientific and translational prominence with the discovery that its receptor is a GFRAL-RET heterodimer of which GFRAL is expressed solely in the hindbrain. Activation of this receptor results in reduced food intake and loss of body weight and is perceived and recalled by animals as aversive. This information encourages a revised interpretation of the large body of previous research on the protein. GDF15 can be secreted by a wide variety of cell types in response to a broad range of stressors...
August 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Kirsty A Walters, Rebecca E Campbell, Anna Benrick, Paolo Giacobini, Daniel A Dumesic, David H Abbott
More than 1 out of 10 women worldwide are diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the leading cause of female reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. Despite its high prevalence, PCOS and its accompanying morbidities are likely underdiagnosed, averaging > 2 years and 3 physicians before women are diagnosed. Although it has been intensively researched, the underlying cause(s) of PCOS have yet to be defined. In order to understand PCOS pathophysiology, its developmental origins, and how to predict and prevent PCOS onset, there is an urgent need for safe and effective markers and treatments...
July 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Vera Chesnokova, Shlomo Melmed
DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair pathways determine neoplastic cell transformation and therapeutic responses, as well as the aging process. Altered DDR functioning results in accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage, increased frequency of tumorigenic mutations, and premature aging. Recent evidence suggests that polypeptide hormones play a role in modulating DDR and DNA damage repair, while DNA damage accumulation may also affect hormonal status. We review the available reports elucidating involvement of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), growth hormone (GH), α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/gonadotropins in DDR and DNA repair as well as the current understanding of pathways enabling these actions...
July 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Joep Beumer, Helmuth Gehart, Hans Clevers
The recent intersection of enteroendocrine cell biology with single-cell technologies and novel in vitro model systems has generated a tremendous amount of new data. Here we highlight these recent developments and explore how these findings contribute to the understanding of endocrine lineages in the gut. In particular, the concept of hormonal plasticity, the ability of endocrine cells to produce different hormones in the course of their lifetime, challenges the classic notion of cell types. Enteroendocrine cells travel in the course of their life through different signaling environments that directly influence their hormonal repertoire...
June 12, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Alexis Diaz-Vegas, Pablo Sanchez-Aguilera, James R Krycer, Pablo E Morales, Matías Monsalves-Alvarez, Mariana Cifuentes, Beverly A Rothermel, Sergio Lavandero
Mitochondrial damage is implicated as a major contributing factor for a number of noncommunicable chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity, and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes. Here, we discuss the role of mitochondria in maintaining cellular and whole-organism homeostasis, the mechanisms that promote mitochondrial dysfunction, and the role of this phenomenon in noncommunicable chronic diseases. We also review the state of the art regarding the preclinical evidence associated with the regulation of mitochondrial function and the development of current mitochondria-targeted therapeutics to treat noncommunicable chronic diseases...
June 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Stafford L Lightman, Matthew T Birnie, Becky L Conway-Campbell
The past decade has seen several critical advances in our understanding of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Homeostatic physiological circuits need to integrate multiple internal and external stimuli and provide a dynamic output appropriate for the response parameters of their target tissues. The HPA axis is an example of such a homeostatic system. Recent studies have shown that circadian rhythmicity of the major output of this system-the adrenal glucocorticoid hormones corticosterone in rodent and predominately cortisol in man-comprises varying amplitude pulses that exist due to a subhypothalamic pulse generator...
June 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Rodolfo J Galindo, Roy W Beck, Maria F Scioscia, Guillermo E Umpierrez, Katherine R Tuttle
Glucose and insulin metabolism in patients with diabetes are profoundly altered by advanced chronic kidney disease. Risk of hypoglycemia is increased by failure of kidney gluconeogenesis, impaired insulin clearance by the kidney, defective insulin degradation due to uremia, increased erythrocyte glucose uptake during hemodialysis, impaired counter-regulatory hormone responses (cortisol, growth hormone), nutritional deprivation and variability of exposure to oral anti-hyperglycemic agents and exogenous insulin...
May 26, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Irl B Hirsch, Rattan Juneja, John M Beals, Caryl J Antalis, Eugene E Wright
Insulin has been available for the treatment of diabetes for almost a century, and the variety of insulin choices today represents many years of discovery and innovation. Insulin has gone from poorly defined extracts of animal pancreata to pure and precisely controlled formulations that can be prescribed and administered with high accuracy and predictability of action. Modifications of the insulin formulation and of the insulin molecule itself have made it possible to approximate the natural endogenous insulin response...
May 12, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Mai Charlotte Krogh Severinsen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen
Physical activity decreases the risk of a network of diseases and exercise may be prescribed as medicine for lifestyle-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes, dementia, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. During the past couple of decades, it has been apparent that skeletal muscle works as an endocrine organ, which can produce and secrete hundreds of myokines that exert their effects in either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine manners. Recent advances show that skeletal muscle produces myokines in response to exercise, which allow for crosstalk between the muscle and other organs, including brain, adipose tissue, bone, liver, gut, pancreas, vascular bed and skin, as well as communication within the muscle itself...
May 11, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Daniel J Drucker
Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk for bacterial, mycotic, parasitic and viral infections. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV2 (also referred to as COVID-19) coronavirus pandemic highlights the importance of understanding shared disease pathophysiology potentially informing therapeutic choices in individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Two coronavirus receptor proteins, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP4) are also established transducers of metabolic signals and pathways regulating inflammation, renal and cardiovascular physiology, and glucose homeostasis...
April 15, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Mark Sherlock, Andrew Scarsbrook, Afroze Abbas, Sheila Fraser, Padiporn Limumpornpetch, Rosemary Dineen, Paul M Stewart
An adrenal incidentaloma is now established as a common endocrine diagnosis that requires a multidisciplinary approach for effective management. The majority of patients can be reassured and discharged, but a personalized approach based upon image analysis, endocrine workup and clinical symptoms and signs are required in every case. ACC remains a real concern but is restricted to <2% of all cases. Functional AI lesions are commoner (but still probably <10% of total) and the greatest challenge remains the diagnosis and optimum management of autonomous cortisol secretion...
April 8, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Shana E McCormack, James E Blevins, Elizabeth A Lawson
There is growing evidence that oxytocin (OXT), a hypothalamic hormone well recognized for its effects in inducing parturition and lactation, has important metabolic effects in both sexes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the physiologic effects of OXT on metabolism and to explore its therapeutic potential for metabolic disorders. In model systems, OXT promotes weight loss by decreasing energy intake. Pair-feeding studies suggest that OXT-induced weight loss may also be partly due to increased energy expenditure and/or lipolysis...
April 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Alexander W Fischer, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
Animals that lack the hormone leptin become grossly obese, purportedly for 2 reasons: increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure (thermogenesis). This review examines the experimental evidence for the thermogenesis component. Analysis of the data available led us to conclude that the reports indicating hypometabolism in the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice (as well as in the leptin-receptor-deficient db/db mice and fa/fa rats) derive from a misleading calculation artefact resulting from expression of energy expenditure per gram of body weight and not per intact organism...
April 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
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