Endocrine Reviews

Joep Beumer, Helmuth Gehart, Hans Clevers
The recent intersection of enteroendocrine cell biology with single-cell technologies and novel in vitro model systems has generated a tremendous amount of new data. Here we highlight these recent developments and explore how these findings contribute to the understanding of endocrine lineages in the gut. In particular, the concept of hormonal plasticity, the ability of endocrine cells to produce different hormones in the course of their lifetime, challenges the classic notion of cell types. Enteroendocrine cells travel in the course of their life through different signaling environments that directly influence their hormonal repertoire...
June 12, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Rodolfo J Galindo, Roy W Beck, Maria F Scioscia, Guillermo E Umpierrez, Katherine R Tuttle
Glucose and insulin metabolism in patients with diabetes are profoundly altered by advanced chronic kidney disease. Risk of hypoglycemia is increased by failure of kidney gluconeogenesis, impaired insulin clearance by the kidney, defective insulin degradation due to uremia, increased erythrocyte glucose uptake during hemodialysis, impaired counter-regulatory hormone responses (cortisol, growth hormone), nutritional deprivation and variability of exposure to oral anti-hyperglycemic agents and exogenous insulin...
May 26, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Irl B Hirsch, Rattan Juneja, John M Beals, Caryl J Antalis, Eugene E Wright
Insulin has been available for the treatment of diabetes for almost a century, and the variety of insulin choices today represents many years of discovery and innovation. Insulin has gone from poorly defined extracts of animal pancreata to pure and precisely controlled formulations that can be prescribed and administered with high accuracy and predictability of action. Modifications of the insulin formulation and of the insulin molecule itself have made it possible to approximate the natural endogenous insulin response...
May 12, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Mai Charlotte Krogh Severinsen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen
Physical activity decreases the risk of a network of diseases and exercise may be prescribed as medicine for lifestyle-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes, dementia, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. During the past couple of decades, it has been apparent that skeletal muscle works as an endocrine organ, which can produce and secrete hundreds of myokines that exert their effects in either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine manners. Recent advances show that skeletal muscle produces myokines in response to exercise, which allow for crosstalk between the muscle and other organs, including brain, adipose tissue, bone, liver, gut, pancreas, vascular bed and skin, as well as communication within the muscle itself...
May 11, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Yong Hoon Kim, Mitchell A Lazar
All biological processes, living organisms, and ecosystems have evolved with the Sun that confers a 24-hr periodicity to life on Earth. Circadian rhythms arose from evolutionary needs to maximize daily organismal fitness by enabling organisms to mount anticipatory and adaptive responses to recurrent light-dark cycles and associated environmental changes. The clock is a conserved feature in nearly all forms of life, ranging from prokaryotes to virtually every cell of multicellular eukaryotes. The mammalian clock is comprised of transcription factors interlocked in negative feedback loops, which generate circadian expression of genes that coordinate rhythmic physiology...
May 11, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Jia Zhu, Florian Eichler, Alessandra Biffi, Christine N Duncan, David A Williams, Joseph A Majzoub
Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a rare X-linked disorder of peroxisomal oxidation due to mutations in ABCD1. It is a progressive condition with a variable clinical spectrum that includes primary adrenal insufficiency, myelopathy, and cerebral ALD. Adrenal insufficiency affects over 80% of ALD patients. Cerebral ALD affects one-third of boys under the age of 12 years and progresses to total disability and death without treatment. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only disease-modifying therapy if completed in the early stages of cerebral ALD, but does not affect the course of adrenal insufficiency...
May 4, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Samuel M Lockhart, Vladimir Saudek, Stephen O'Rahilly
GDF15 has recently gained scientific and translational prominence with the discovery that its receptor is a GFRAL-RET heterodimer of which GFRAL is expressed solely in the hindbrain. Activation of this receptor results in reduced food intake and loss of body weight and is perceived and recalled by animals as aversive. This information encourages a revised interpretation of the large body of previous research on the protein. GDF15 can be secreted by a wide variety of cell types in response to a broad range of stressors...
April 20, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Daniel J Drucker
Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk for bacterial, mycotic, parasitic and viral infections. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV2 (also referred to as COVID-19) coronavirus pandemic highlights the importance of understanding shared disease pathophysiology potentially informing therapeutic choices in individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Two coronavirus receptor proteins, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP4) are also established transducers of metabolic signals and pathways regulating inflammation, renal and cardiovascular physiology, and glucose homeostasis...
April 15, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Md Soriful Islam, Sadia Afrin, Sara Isabel Jones, James Segars
Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) are a new class of compounds developed to target the progesterone receptor (PR) with a mix of agonist and antagonist properties. These compounds have been introduced for the treatment of several gynecological conditions based on the critical role of progesterone in reproduction and reproductive tissues. In patients with uterine fibroids, mifepristone and ulipristal acetate have consistently demonstrated efficacy, and vilaprisan is currently under investigation, while studies of asoprisnil and telapristone were halted for safety concerns...
October 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Kirsty A Walters, Rebecca E Campbell, Anna Benrick, Paolo Giacobini, Daniel A Dumesic, David H Abbott
More than 1 out of 10 women worldwide are diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the leading cause of female reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. Despite its high prevalence, PCOS and its accompanying morbidities are likely underdiagnosed, averaging > 2 years and 3 physicians before women are diagnosed. Although it has been intensively researched, the underlying cause(s) of PCOS have yet to be defined. In order to understand PCOS pathophysiology, its developmental origins, and how to predict and prevent PCOS onset, there is an urgent need for safe and effective markers and treatments...
July 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Vera Chesnokova, Shlomo Melmed
DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair pathways determine neoplastic cell transformation and therapeutic responses, as well as the aging process. Altered DDR functioning results in accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage, increased frequency of tumorigenic mutations, and premature aging. Recent evidence suggests that polypeptide hormones play a role in modulating DDR and DNA damage repair, while DNA damage accumulation may also affect hormonal status. We review the available reports elucidating involvement of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), growth hormone (GH), α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/gonadotropins in DDR and DNA repair as well as the current understanding of pathways enabling these actions...
July 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Stafford L Lightman, Matthew T Birnie, Becky L Conway-Campbell
The past decade has seen several critical advances in our understanding of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Homeostatic physiological circuits need to integrate multiple internal and external stimuli and provide a dynamic output appropriate for the response parameters of their target tissues. The HPA axis is an example of such a homeostatic system. Recent studies have shown that circadian rhythmicity of the major output of this system-the adrenal glucocorticoid hormones corticosterone in rodent and predominately cortisol in man-comprises varying amplitude pulses that exist due to a subhypothalamic pulse generator...
June 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Mark Sherlock, Andrew Scarsbrook, Afroze Abbas, Sheila Fraser, Padiporn Limumpornpetch, Rosemary Dineen, Paul M Stewart
An adrenal incidentaloma is now established as a common endocrine diagnosis that requires a multidisciplinary approach for effective management. The majority of patients can be reassured and discharged, but a personalized approach based upon image analysis, endocrine workup and clinical symptoms and signs are required in every case. ACC remains a real concern but is restricted to <2% of all cases. Functional AI lesions are commoner (but still probably <10% of total) and the greatest challenge remains the diagnosis and optimum management of autonomous cortisol secretion...
April 8, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Stefan Groeneweg, Ferdy S van Geest, Robin P Peeters, Heike Heuer, W Edward Visser
Thyroid hormone transporters at the plasma membrane govern intracellular bioavailability of thyroid hormone. Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 8 and MCT10, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1C1, and SLC17A4 are currently known as transporters displaying the highest specificity toward thyroid hormones. Structure-function studies using homology modeling and mutational screens have led to better understanding of the molecular basis of thyroid hormone transport. Mutations in MCT8 and in OATP1C1 have been associated with clinical disorders...
April 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Yuliya Lytvyn, Petter Bjornstad, Daniel H van Raalte, Hiddo L Heerspink, David Z I Cherney
Diabetic kidney disease remains the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease in the world. Despite reductions in incidence rates of myocardial infarction and stroke in people with diabetes over the past 3 decades, the risk of diabetic kidney disease has remained unchanged, and may even be increasing in younger individuals afflicted with this disease. Accordingly, changes in public health policy have to be implemented to address the root causes of diabetic kidney disease, including the rise of obesity and diabetes, in addition to the use of safe and effective pharmacological agents to prevent cardiorenal complications in people with diabetes...
April 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Johannes Hofland, Gregory Kaltsas, Wouter W de Herder
Neuroendocrine neoplasms constitute a diverse group of tumors that derive from the sensory and secretory neuroendocrine cells and predominantly arise within the pulmonary and gastrointestinal tracts. The majority of these neoplasms have a well-differentiated grade and are termed neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). This subgroup is characterized by limited proliferation and patients affected by these tumors carry a good to moderate prognosis. A substantial subset of patients presenting with a NET suffer from the consequences of endocrine syndromes as a result of the excessive secretion of amines or peptide hormones, which can impair their quality of life and prognosis...
April 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Elisabetta Vegeto, Alessandro Villa, Sara Della Torre, Valeria Crippa, Paola Rusmini, Riccardo Cristofani, Mariarita Galbiati, Adriana Maggi, Angelo Poletti
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are a wide class of disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) with unknown etiology. Several factors were hypothesized to be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases, including genetic and environmental factors. Many of these diseases show a sex prevalence and sex steroids were shown to have a role in the progression of specific forms of neurodegeneration. Estrogens were reported to be neuroprotective through their action on cognate nuclear and membrane receptors, while adverse effects of male hormones have been described on neuronal cells, although some data also suggest neuroprotective activities...
April 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Masaaki Yamamoto, Genzo Iguchi, Hironori Bando, Keitaro Kanie, Ryoko Hidaka-Takeno, Hidenori Fukuoka, Yutaka Takahashi
Some endocrine disorders, including hypophysitis and isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency, are caused by an autoimmune response to endocrine organs. Although the pathogenesis of some autoimmune endocrine diseases has been elucidated, it remains obscure for most. Anti-PIT-1 hypophysitis (anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome) is a newly described pituitary autoimmune disease characterized by acquired and specific growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiencies...
April 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Britton Trabert, Mark E Sherman, Nagarajan Kannan, Frank Z Stanczyk
Synthetic progestogens (progestins) have been linked to increased breast cancer risk; however, the role of endogenous progesterone in breast physiology and carcinogenesis is less clearly defined. Mechanistic studies using cell culture, tissue culture, and preclinical models implicate progesterone in breast carcinogenesis. In contrast, limited epidemiologic data generally do not show an association of circulating progesterone levels with risk, and it is unclear whether this reflects methodologic limitations or a truly null relationship...
April 1, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
Vinaya Srirangam Nadhamuni, Márta Korbonits
Substantial advances have been made recently in the pathobiology of pituitary tumors. Similar to many other endocrine tumors, over the last few years we have recognized the role of germline and somatic mutations in a number of syndromic or non-syndromic conditions with pituitary tumor predisposition. These include the identification of novel germline variants in patients with familial or simplex pituitary tumors and establishment of novel somatic variants identified through next generation sequencing. Advanced techniques have allowed the exploration of epigenetic mechanisms mediated through DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs, such as microRNA, long noncoding RNAs and circular RNAs...
March 23, 2020: Endocrine Reviews
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