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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878228/management-of-opioid-use-disorder-in-the-usa-present-status-and-future-directions
#1
REVIEW
Carlos Blanco, Nora D Volkow
Opioid use disorder is characterised by the persistent use of opioids despite the adverse consequences of its use. The disorder is associated with a range of mental and general medical comorbid disorders, and with increased mortality. Although genetics are important in opioid use disorder, younger age, male sex, and lower educational attainment level and income, increase the risk of opioid use disorder, as do certain psychiatric disorders (eg, other substance use disorders and mood disorders). The medications for opioid use disorder, which include methadone, buprenorphine, and extended-release naltrexone, significantly improve opioid use disorder outcomes...
March 13, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878227/prophylactic-laser-iridotomy-in-primary-angle-closure-suspects
#2
Robert N Weinreb, Sasan Moghimi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878226/laser-peripheral-iridotomy-for-the-prevention-of-angle-closure-a-single-centre-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Mingguang He, Yuzhen Jiang, Shengsong Huang, Dolly S Chang, Beatriz Munoz, Tin Aung, Paul J Foster, David S Friedman
BACKGROUND: Primary angle-closure glaucoma affects 20 million people worldwide. People classified as primary angle closure suspects have a higher but poorly quantified risk of developing glaucoma. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of laser peripheral iridotomy prophylaxis against primary angle-closure glaucoma in Chinese people classified as primary angle closure suspects. METHODS: In this randomised controlled trial, bilateral primary angle closure suspects aged 50-70 years were enrolled at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, a tertiary specialised hospital in Guangzhou, China...
March 13, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878225/the-relationships-between-democratic-experience-adult-health-and-cause-specific-mortality-in-170-countries-between-1980-and-2016-an-observational-analysis
#4
Thomas J Bollyky, Tara Templin, Matthew Cohen, Diana Schoder, Joseph L Dieleman, Simon Wigley
BACKGROUND: Previous analyses of democracy and population health have focused on broad measures, such as life expectancy at birth and child and infant mortality, and have shown some contradictory results. We used a panel of data spanning 170 countries to assess the association between democracy and cause-specific mortality and explore the pathways connecting democratic rule to health gains. METHODS: We extracted cause-specific mortality and HIV-free life expectancy estimates from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 and information on regime type from the Varieties of Democracy project...
March 13, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878224/good-news-for-democracy
#5
Helen Epstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878223/advancing-the-repurposing-of-ivermectin-for-malaria
#6
Carlos Chaccour, N Regina Rabinovich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878222/efficacy-and-risk-of-harms-of-repeat-ivermectin-mass-drug-administrations-for-control-of-malaria-rimdamal-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#7
Brian D Foy, Haoues Alout, Jonathan A Seaman, Sangeeta Rao, Tereza Magalhaes, Martina Wade, Sunil Parikh, Dieudonné D Soma, André B Sagna, Florence Fournet, Hannah C Slater, Roland Bougma, François Drabo, Abdoulaye Diabaté, A Gafar V Coulidiaty, Nöel Rouamba, Roch K Dabiré
BACKGROUND: Ivermectin is widely used in mass drug administrations for controlling neglected parasitic diseases, and can be lethal to malaria vectors that bite treated humans. Therefore, it could be a new tool to reduce plasmodium transmission. We tested the hypothesis that frequently repeated mass administrations of ivermectin to village residents would reduce clinical malaria episodes in children and would be well tolerated with minimal harms. METHODS: We invited villages (clusters) in Burkina Faso to participate in a single-blind (outcomes assessor), parallel-assignment, two-arm, cluster-randomised trial over the 2015 rainy season...
March 13, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30871722/venezuela-s-public-health-crisis-a-regional-emergency
#8
REVIEW
Kathleen R Page, Shannon Doocy, Feliciano Reyna Ganteaume, Julio S Castro, Paul Spiegel, Chris Beyrer
The economic crisis in Venezuela has eroded the country's health-care infrastructure and threatened the public health of its people. Shortages in medications, health supplies, interruptions of basic utilities at health-care facilities, and the emigration of health-care workers have led to a progressive decline in the operational capacity of health care. The effect of the crisis on public health has been difficult to quantify since the Venezuelan Ministry of Health stopped publishing crucial public health statistics in 2016...
March 11, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878221/optimising-the-continuum-of-child-and-adolescent-health-and-development
#9
Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Cesar Victora, Ties Boerma, Margaret E Kruk, George Patton, Maureen M Black, Susan Sawyer, Susan Horton, Robert E Black, Richard Horton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30876707/trends-in-cause-specific-mortality-among-children-aged-5-14-years-from-2005-to-2016-in-india-china-brazil-and-mexico-an-analysis-of-nationally-representative-mortality-studies
#10
Shaza A Fadel, Cynthia Boschi-Pinto, Shicheng Yu, Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu, Geetha R Menon, Leslie Newcombe, Kathleen L Strong, Qiqi Wang, Prabhat Jha
BACKGROUND: With global survival increasing for children younger than 5 years of age, attention is required to reduce the approximately 1 million deaths of children aged 5-14 years occurring every year. Causes of death at these ages remain poorly documented. We aimed to explore trends in mortality by causes of death in India, China, Brazil, and Mexico, which are home to about 40% of the world's children aged 5-14 years and experience more than 200 000 deaths annually at these ages. METHODS: We examined data on 244 401 deaths in children aged 5-14 years from four nationally representative data sources that obtained direct distributions of causes of death: the Indian Million Death Study, the Chinese Disease Surveillance Points, mortality data from the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, and mortality data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics...
March 8, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30876706/progress-in-adolescent-health-and-wellbeing-tracking-12-headline-indicators-for-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2016
#11
Peter S Azzopardi, Stephen J C Hearps, Kate L Francis, Elissa C Kennedy, Ali H Mokdad, Nicholas J Kassebaum, Stephen Lim, Caleb M S Irvine, Theo Vos, Alex D Brown, Surabhi Dogra, Stuart A Kinner, Natasha S Kaoma, Mariam Naguib, Nicola J Reavley, Jennifer Requejo, John S Santelli, Susan M Sawyer, Vegard Skirbekk, Marleen Temmerman, Jordan Tewhaiti-Smith, Joseph L Ward, Russell M Viner, George C Patton
BACKGROUND: Rapid demographic, epidemiological, and nutritional transitons have brought a pressing need to track progress in adolescent health. Here, we present country-level estimates of 12 headline indicators from the Lancet Commission on adolescent health and wellbeing, from 1990 to 2016. METHODS: Indicators included those of health outcomes (disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] due to communicable, maternal, and nutritional diseases; injuries; and non-communicable diseases); health risks (tobacco smoking, binge drinking, overweight, and anaemia); and social determinants of health (adolescent fertility; completion of secondary education; not in education, employment, or training [NEET]; child marriage; and demand for contraception satisfied with modern methods)...
March 8, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30876705/shedding-light-on-a-million-annual-deaths-in-mid-childhood
#12
Li Liu, George Patton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30876704/improving-adolescent-health-an-evidence-based-call-to-action
#13
Helen A Weiss, Rashida A Ferrand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30862378/laser-trabeculoplasty-as-first-line-glaucoma-treatment
#14
Jonathan W Young, Joesph Caprioli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30862377/selective-laser-trabeculoplasty-versus-eye-drops-for-first-line-treatment-of-ocular-hypertension-and-glaucoma-light-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Gus Gazzard, Evgenia Konstantakopoulou, David Garway-Heath, Anurag Garg, Victoria Vickerstaff, Rachael Hunter, Gareth Ambler, Catey Bunce, Richard Wormald, Neil Nathwani, Keith Barton, Gary Rubin, Marta Buszewicz
BACKGROUND: Primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension are habitually treated with eye drops that lower intraocular pressure. Selective laser trabeculoplasty is a safe alternative but is rarely used as first-line treatment. We compared the two. METHODS: In this observer-masked, randomised controlled trial treatment-naive patients with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and no ocular comorbidities were recruited between 2012 and 2014 at six UK hospitals...
March 8, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30857647/veverimer-versus-placebo-in-patients-with-metabolic-acidosis-associated-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-controlled-phase-3-trial
#16
Donald E Wesson, Vandana Mathur, Navdeep Tangri, Yuri Stasiv, Dawn Parsell, Elizabeth Li, Gerrit Klaerner, David A Bushinsky
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease lose the capacity to fully excrete endogenous acid, resulting in chronic metabolic acidosis that increases the risk of disease progression and causes muscle catabolism and bone resorption. Veverimer, a non-absorbed, counterion-free, polymeric drug, selectively binds and removes hydrochloric acid from the gastrointestinal lumen, unlike current oral sodium bicarbonate therapy for metabolic acidosis that only neutralises accumulated acid...
March 8, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30857646/post-brexit-food-standards
#17
LETTER
Tim Lang, Erik P Millstone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30857645/treatment-of-metabolic-acidosis-with-an-intestinal-binder
#18
Shen Song, Glenn M Chertow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30853152/improving-coronary-artery-outcomes-for-children-with-kawasaki-disease
#19
Brian W McCrindle, Anne H Rowley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30853151/efficacy-of-primary-treatment-with-immunoglobulin-plus-ciclosporin-for-prevention-of-coronary-artery-abnormalities-in-patients-with-kawasaki-disease-predicted-to-be-at-increased-risk-of-non-response-to-intravenous-immunoglobulin-kaica-a-randomised-controlled
#20
Hiromichi Hamada, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Yoshihiro Onouchi, Ryota Ebata, Masaru Terai, Shigeto Fuse, Yoshitomo Okajima, Shunji Kurotobi, Katsuki Hirai, Takashi Soga, Yukiko Ishiguchi, Yoshiaki Okuma, Nobuyuki Takada, Masaaki Yanai, Junichi Sato, Mami Nakayashiro, Mamoru Ayusawa, Eiichi Yamamoto, Yuichi Nomura, Yuya Hashimura, Kazunobu Ouchi, Hiroshi Masuda, Shinichi Takatsuki, Keiichi Hirono, Tadashi Ariga, Takashi Higaki, Akio Otsuki, Moe Terauchi, Reiko Aoyagi, Takatoshi Sato, Yasuhisa Fujii, Tadami Fujiwara, Hideki Hanaoka, Akira Hata
BACKGROUND: Genetic studies have indicated possible involvement of the upregulated calcium-nuclear factor of activated T cells pathway in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of ciclosporin, an immunosuppressant targeting this pathway, for protection of patients with Kawasaki disease against coronary artery abnormalities. METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, blinded endpoints trial involving 22 hospitals in Japan between May 29, 2014, and Dec 27, 2016...
March 7, 2019: Lancet
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