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Risk of Common Neurological Disorders in Adult Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

BACKGROUND: Several studies investigated the risks of neurological conditions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with some variability in findings. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of available evidence to elucidate the association between IBD and the risks of common neurological disorders.

METHODS: We conducted a literature search through Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and ProQuest databases from inception to June 30, 2023, to identify cohort studies assessing the risk of developing stroke, all-cause dementia, Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), seizure/epilepsy, and peripheral neuropathy in adult IBD patients compared with non-IBD population. We combined hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to compute pooled estimates using a random-effects model.

RESULTS: In total, 22 cohort studies were included, of which 9 studies reported 7074 stroke events in 202 460 IBD patients, 5 studies reported 3783 all-cause dementia diagnoses in 109 602 IBD patients, 7 studies reported 932 PD diagnoses in 354 792 IBD patients, and 1 study reported 6 MS events in 35 581 IBD patients. We observed increased risks of incident stroke (pooled HR = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31), all-cause dementia (pooled HR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.38), PD (pooled HR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.20-1.58), and MS (HR = 2.89; 95% CI, 1.02-8.42). No eligible studies were found on peripheral neuropathy and seizure/epilepsy.

CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory bowel disease may be modestly associated with increased risks of stroke, all-cause dementia, and PD. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate potential links with MS, seizure/epilepsy, and peripheral neuropathy, as well as their clinical significance.

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