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Systematic Literature Review of Risk Factors for Poor Outcomes Among Adults With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in High-Income Countries.

UNLABELLED: Identification of risk factors for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease in adults could facilitate their appropriate vaccine recommendations. We conducted a systematic literature review (last 10 years in PubMed/Embase) to identify quantitative estimates of risk factors for severe RSV infection outcomes in high-income countries. Severe outcomes from RSV infection included hospitalization, excess mortality, lower respiratory tract infection, or a composite measure: severe RSV, which included these outcomes and others, such as mechanical ventilation and extended hospital stay. Among 1494 articles screened, 26 met eligibility criteria. We found strong evidence that the following increased the risk of severe outcomes: age, preexisting comorbid conditions (eg, cardiac, pulmonary, and immunocompromising diseases, as well as diabetes and kidney disease), and living conditions (socioeconomic status and nursing home residence). The frequency of severe outcomes among younger adults with comorbidities was generally similar to that experienced by older adults, suggesting that immunosenescence and chronic conditions are both contributing factors for elevated risk.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42022315239).

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