Naeem Iqbal, Samantha R De Silva, Susan M Downes
A 75-year-old caucasian female presented with sudden severe visual deterioration in one eye reduced from 6/9 to counting fingers (CF), with second eye reduction in vision from 6/9 to CF three months later. Past medical history included a background of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, uncontrolled blood pressure, and a 44-year history of poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Previous ocular history included bilateral pan-retinal photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy, followed by bilateral vitrectomies, with subsequent bilateral cataract surgery with intraocular lens implants...
January 2023: Curēus
Filipa Andrade, Cláudia Reis, Márcia Mota, Henrique Salgado
Paraphrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder characterized by a strong delusional component with preservation of thought and personality. It was first introduced as a disorder associated with paranoid dementia and paranoia, but with less personality deterioration than schizophrenia and without fulfilling the clinical features of a delusional disorder. This classic diagnostic entity is not currently listed in main diagnostic systems, rendering delusional disorders difficult to classify in cases that resemble the concept of paraphrenia...
January 2023: Curēus
Mona Alfares, Atheer Almrzouqi, Rana Alghamdi, Raghad Alsharif, Layan Kurdi, Sara Kamfar, Fatmah Alzahrani, Leen Maimani
Background To our knowledge, no studies have been done in Saudi Arabia to determine the risk factors of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) among hospitalized cardiac patients. This study aimed to assess these risk factors. Methods A retrospective study was done at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Five hundred hospitalized patients diagnosed with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) were included. A checklist was used to collect data about patients' demographic characteristics; BMI; smoking and alcohol abuse; type of cardiac disease; other chronic diseases; exposure to immunosuppressives; chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the last six months; glucocorticoid use; application of ventilator; initial, follow-up chest X-ray results; pneumonia vaccination status; nasogastric tube use; general anesthesia received; use of loop diuretics; presence of pulmonary diseases; levels of WBC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP); results of blood and respiratory cultures; number of hospitalizations and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in the last six months; and Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS) score...
January 2023: Curēus
Yusuf Altunoz, Banu Karakus Yilmaz, Hatice Topcu, Gökhan Cetinkal, İbrahim İkizceli, Yavuz Yigit
OBJECTIVE: The HEARTS3 score is used to predict acute coronary syndrome by evaluating the findings of chest pain patients at the end of the second hour. Additionally, the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) 2014 non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) management guideline suggests assessing cardiac troponin levels at the third and sixth hours as a class 1A recommendation. This study aimed to explore the value of the HEARTS3 score for the evaluation of patients with chest pain and its utility for determining whether a patient is eligible for early discharge from the emergency department...
January 2023: Curēus
Catarina Osório, Diogo Silva, Luís Teles, Tiago Ferreira, Mário Nora
Clostridium perfringens ( C. perfringens ) and Klebsiella oxytoca ( K. oxytoca ) are pathogenic human bacteria. Clostridium perfringens sepsis with intravascular hemolysis is a catastrophic process with an extremely high mortality rate (70 to 100%). A 74-year-old male submitted to an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to cholelithiasis and develops severe abdominal pain only 10 hours after being discharged from hospital. He was admitted to the emergency department with associated jaundice, fever, and hematuria...
January 2023: Curēus
Venu M Ganipisetti, Pratyusha Bollimunta, Nyi Nyi Tun, Ashok Kanugula, Vishwanath Anil, Anand Athavale, Babu Sriram Maringanti
Vitamin B12 deficiency-induced pseudo-thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (pseudo-TTP) is a rare condition. In reported literature, most cases were due to pernicious anemia (confirmed by the presence of anti-parietal cells or anti-intrinsic factor antibodies). Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency causing pseudo-TTP is a much rarer entity. Differentiating thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) cases from pseudo-TTP (from any cause) should be done as soon as possible since the etiology, treatment, and outcome are different...
January 2023: Curēus
Tsz Ki Ko
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an increasing threat to first-world nations as their population ages, with around one in 100 suffering from it by age 60. Incurable, with treatments that do little to delay disease progression, PD induces severe disability and even death in those afflicted. The search for preventative measures has revealed the widely used psychoactive stimulant caffeine, which competitively inhibits adenosine receptors to induce a wide variety of effects. The inhibition of inflammation and microglial cell activation to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cellular damage and the resultant mitochondrial dysfunction of the dopaminergic neurons appears to be the main pathway, inducing neuronal loss via the activation of the intrinsic pathway to apoptosis...
January 2023: Curēus
Shingo Tsujinaka, Hideyuki Suzuki, Tomoya Miura, Yoshihiro Sato, Hiroko Murata, Yasue Endo, Kyoko Hoshi, Yoshie Sato, Chikashi Shibata
An ileostomy is associated with multiple complications that may frequently or persistently affect the life of ostomates. All healthcare professionals should have knowledge of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ileostomy complications. Peristomal dermatitis is caused by watery and highly alkaline effluent. Skin protective products are typically used for local treatment. Ischemia/necrosis occurs due to insufficient arterial blood supply. Retraction is seen in patients with a bulky mesentery and occurs following ischemia...
January 2023: Curēus
Sho Fujiwara, Ryujiro Akaishi, Tomoki Yokosawa
Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare chronic inflammatory condition often with unknown origins. We report a case of an abdominal cocoon or sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, which was suspected to be a result of bowel obstruction. Tuberculosis peritonitis was also suspected. However, the exact diagnosis was unclear, and it was diagnosed as an idiopathic abdominal cocoon. The patient's history is of clear relevance in this diagnosis, and this report will be of interest to clinicians attending to cases of bowel obstruction...
January 2023: Curēus
Manoj K Prasad, Sujeet Marandi, Brajesh Mishra, Rishi T Guria, Amit Kumar, Hirendra Birua, Hemant N Ray, Ajit Dungdung, Divakar Kumar, Shubham Maitra
Validation of a risk factor in a multifactorial disease like ischemic stroke is necessary to practice precision medicine. Many risk factors have been attributed to causing ischemic stroke but contribute very little to it. There are many risk factors that need to be validated, and fibrinogen is one such risk factor. Using a meta-analysis technique, we investigated fibrinogen as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. We searched the computerized databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane to explore articles on ischemic stroke...
January 2023: Curēus
Diana Voloshyna, Sidra Jamil, Syeda Iqra Mushir, Naila Akhter, Nimra Saleem
[This retracts the article DOI: 10.7759/cureus.29931.].
January 2023: Curēus
Guarina Molina, Rafael Contreras, Kyle Coombes, Thilini Walgamage, Maria A Perozo, Martha T DesBiens
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been associated with multiple inflammatory symptoms involving several organ systems, including hematologic manifestations. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening syndrome caused by excessive inflammation in the absence of immune regulation. We present the case of a patient with HLH secondary to dysregulated inflammatory response following COVID-19; we also describe the diagnostic and management challenges associated with the condition...
January 2023: Curēus
Alejandro J Quiroz Alfaro, Juliana Greiffenstein, Andrés Felipe Herrera Ortiz, Catalina A Dussan Tovar, Sara Saldarriaga Santamaría, Jaqueline Cifuentes Burbano, Nataly García, Maria C Rodríguez Díaz, Susana M Sierra Molina, Guillermo Jiménez Calfat
Subungual melanomas are rare neoplasms that tend to debut as longitudinal melanonychia. They are primarily found in patients over 60 years of age and are usually diagnosed late, representing a diagnostic challenge. We present a case report of a 59-year-old female Hispanic patient who initially presented with melanonychia and was eventually diagnosed with subungual melanoma in situ. She was surgically treated and, after three months, remained healthy. Relevant risk factors, clinical and onychoscopic findings, diagnostic criteria, and treatment options are also discussed...
January 2023: Curēus
Kumar Shantanu, Shailendra Singh, Deepak Kumar, Arpit Singh, Prakash G Tewari, Pranjal Gupta
BACKGROUND: The quadriceps angle, commonly known as the Q-angle, is the angle formed between the vectors of the pull of the quadriceps muscle and the patellar tendon. The literature varies in terms of the values of Q angles measured by various researchers. It is well appreciated that the normal Q-angle should fall between 12° and 20°, with males being at the lower end of this range and females having higher measurements. An increase in Q-angle beyond the normal range has been associated with knee extensor dysfunction leading to patellar instability...
January 2023: Curēus
William J Bruce, Amanda L Brown, Michael R Romanelli, Brian A Mailey
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.7759/cureus.22513.].
January 2023: Curēus
Kamakshi Gupta, Navneet Kaur, Gurpreet Kaur
[This retracts the article DOI: 10.7759/cureus.27440.].
January 2023: Curēus
Chirag Pereira, Shankar Gururaj
Incisional hernias are a common problem following major abdominal surgery. There are numerous surgical techniques described in the existing English scientific literature with different planes for mesh placement. The current review aims to compare onlay versus sublay repair in managing incisional hernias. A systematic literature search was conducted on Embase, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Medline to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing onlay versus sublay mesh repair for incisional hernias...
January 2023: Curēus
Stephanie E Cornish
Hydatid disease affects a significant proportion of the world's population, particularly in endemic areas, with substantial associated morbidity and mortality. However, the incidence of splenic involvement is rare, and isolated splenic disease is even more so; it is infrequently encountered in western countries. As such, their management is often limited to metropolitan tertiary centres with no fixed consensus on the best surgical approach. The author presents a case of the successful management of isolated splenic hydatid disease using a laparoscopic approach in a rural facility, in what is believed to be the first presented Australian case of isolated splenic hydatidosis...
January 2023: Curēus
Swati V Maldhure, Prajakta S Golhar, Prasanna P Moon
Introduction This is a comparative cross-sectional study done to compare the curative outcome of endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) done with and without a silicon stent in patients with chronic dacryocystitis due to nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Methods This study was carried out in central India, involving 60 patients who were diagnosed with chronic dacryocystitis and underwent endonasal DCR (with zero-degree and 45-degree endoscopes from Olympus, with an Olympus camera and monitor) between October 2021 and September 2022...
January 2023: Curēus
Andre Fialho, Andrea Fialho, Bruno Ribeiro, Miguel Malespin, Silvio De Melo, Ron Schey, Peter Ghali
Background A possible association between Helicobacter pylori  (HP) infection and liver diseases including steatosis is suspected. There is a lack of studies evaluating the association of HP and liver steatosis severity using transient elastography. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and risk factors for liver steatosis measured by transient elastography in patients with or without HP. Methods A total of 484 patients tested for liver steatosis and fibrosis using transient elastography from January 2017 to June 2018 were evaluated...
January 2023: Curēus
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