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International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31000774/assessing-causality-in-the-association-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obesity-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#1
Thais Martins-Silva, Juliana Dos Santos Vaz, Mara Helena Hutz, Angélica Salatino-Oliveira, Júlia Pasqualini Genro, Fernando Pires Hartwig, Carlos Renato Moreira-Maia, Luis Augusto Rohde, Maria Carolina Borges, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood and adolescence, is associated with obesity in observational studies. However, it is unclear whether ADHD contributes to, results from or is merely correlated with obesity. This study evaluates the presence and direction of a causal effect between ADHD and obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization using summary data from consortia of genome-wide association studies to investigate if ADHD (N = 55,374) has a causal effect on body mass index (BMI) in childhood (N = 35,668) and adulthood (N = 322,154-500,000), and vice-versa...
April 18, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30992520/the-relationship-between-maternal-body-mass-index-and-pregnancy-outcomes-in-twin-compared-with-singleton-pregnancies
#2
Maya Ram, Howard Berger, Hayley Lipworth, Michael Geary, Sarah D McDonald, Beth Murray-Davis, Catherine Riddell, Haroon Hasan, Jon Barrett, Nir Melamed
OBJECIVE: Women with twins have an a priori increased risk for many of the complications associated with maternal obesity. Thus, the impact of maternal obesity in twins may differ from that reported in singletons. In addition, given the increased metabolic demands in twin pregnancies, the impact of maternal underweight may be greater in twin compared with singleton gestations. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and adverse pregnancy outcomes differ between twin and singleton gestations...
April 16, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30979972/effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-telomere-length-and-t-cell-aging
#3
F Jongbloed, R W J Meijers, J N M IJzermans, R A Klaassen, M E T Dollé, S van den Berg, M G H Betjes, R W F de Bruin, E van der Harst, N H R Litjens
BACKGROUND: Obesity adversely affects health and is associated with subclinical systemic inflammation and features of accelerated aging, including the T-cell immune system. The presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) may accelerate, while bariatric surgery might reverse these phenomena. To examine the effects of MetS and bariatric surgery on T-cell aging, we measured relative telomere length (RTL) and T-cell differentiation status in obese patients before and after bariatric surgery. METHODS: WHO II/III classified obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery were included: 41 without MetS and 67 with MetS...
April 12, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30967609/attentional-bias-and-response-inhibition-in-severe-obesity-with-food-disinhibition-a-study-of-p300-and-n200-event-related-potential
#4
Sylvain Iceta, Julien Benoit, Philippe Cristini, Stéphanie Lambert-Porcheron, Bérénice Segrestin, Martine Laville, Emmanuel Poulet, Emmanuel Disse
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: In obesity there is growing evidence for common mechanism between food intake regulation and substance use disorders, especially more attentional bias and less cognitive control. In the present study we investigated whether severely obese subjects with or without disordered eating exhibit electroencephalographic (EEG) event-related potential (ERP) modifications as observed in substance abusers. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 90 women were included; 30 in the normal-weight (NW) group (18...
April 9, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30967608/salience-network-connectivity-is-reduced-by-a-meal-and-influenced-by-genetic-background-and-hypothalamic-gliosis
#5
Leticia E Sewaybricker, Susan J Melhorn, Mary K Askren, Mary F Webb, Vidhi Tyagi, Mary Rosalynn B De Leon, Thomas J Grabowski, William W Seeley, Ellen A Schur
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The salience network (SN) comprises brain regions that evaluate cues in the external environment in light of internal signals. We examined the SN response to meal intake and potential genetic and acquired influences on SN function. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Monozygotic (MZ; 40 pairs) and dizygotic (15 pairs) twins had body composition and plasma metabolic profile evaluated (glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and GLP-1). Twins underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans before and after a standardized meal...
April 9, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30967607/use-of-high-fat-diets-to-study-rodent-obesity-as-a-model-of-human-obesity
#6
EDITORIAL
John R Speakman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30944421/trends-in-height-weight-bmi-skinfolds-and-measures-of-overweight-and-obesity-from-1979-through-1999-among-american-indian-youth-the-akwesasne-mohawk
#7
Lawrence M Schell, Mia V Gallo, Susan Pfeiffer, Florence Lee, Danielle Garry, Recai Yucel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Information on recent changes in overweight, obesity, and adiposity among American Indians is scarce. To assess changes in size and adiposity among American Indian youth, data from two samples of Akwesasne Mohawk youth, were compared. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Both project 1, conducted in 1979 (n = 75) and Project 2, conducted between 1996 and 1999 (n = 206), sampled youth 10-14 years of age from the Akwesasne Mohawk Reservation (aka St. Regis) that borders New York state, and Ontario and Quebec provinces...
April 3, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30944420/identification-of-a-1p21-independent-functional-variant-for-abdominal-obesity
#8
Lu Liu, Yu-Fang Pei, Tao-Le Liu, Wen-Zhu Hu, Xiao-Lin Yang, Shan-Cheng Li, Rong Hai, Shu Ran, Lan Juan Zhao, Hui Shen, Qing Tian, Hong-Mei Xiao, Kun Zhang, Hong-Wen Deng, Lei Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Aiming to uncover the genetic basis of abdominal obesity, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of trunk fat mass adjusted by trunk lean mass (TFMadj ) and followed by a series of functional investigations. SUBJECTS: A total of 11,569 subjects from six samples were included into the GWAS meta-analysis. METHODS: Meta-analysis was performed by a weighted fixed-effects model. In silico replication analysis was performed in the UK-Biobank (UKB) sample (N = 331,093) and in the GIANT study (N up to 110,204)...
April 3, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30944419/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-agonist-indigo-protects-against-obesity-related-insulin-resistance-through-modulation-of-intestinal-and-metabolic-tissue-immunity
#9
Yi-Hsuan Lin, Helen Luck, Saad Khan, Pierre H H Schneeberger, Sue Tsai, Xavier Clemente-Casares, Helena Lei, Yann-Lii Leu, Yi Tao Chan, Hsing-Yu Chen, Sien-Hung Yang, Bryan Coburn, Shawn Winer, Daniel A Winer
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Low-grade chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and the intestines are important drivers of obesity associated insulin resistance. Bioactive compounds derived from plants are an important source of potential novel therapies for the treatment of chronic diseases. In search for new immune based treatments of obesity associated insulin resistance, we screened for tissue relevant anti-inflammatory properties in 20 plant-based extracts. METHODS: We screened 20 plant-based extracts to assess for preferential production of IL-10 compared to TNFα, specifically targetting metabolic tissues, including the visceral adipose tissue...
April 3, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30940917/estimating-energy-expenditure-from-wrist-and-thigh-accelerometry-in-free-living-adults-a-doubly-labelled-water-study
#10
Tom White, Kate Westgate, Stefanie Hollidge, Michelle Venables, Patrick Olivier, Nick Wareham, Soren Brage
BACKGROUND: Many large studies have implemented wrist or thigh accelerometry to capture physical activity, but the accuracy of these measurements to infer activity energy expenditure (AEE) and consequently total energy expenditure (TEE) has not been demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of acceleration intensity at wrist and thigh sites as estimates of AEE and TEE under free-living conditions using a gold-standard criterion. METHODS: Measurements for 193 UK adults (105 men, 88 women, aged 40-66 years, BMI 20...
April 2, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30940916/correction-interventions-for-treating-children-and-adolescents-with-overweight-and-obesity-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#11
Louisa J Ells, Karen Rees, Tamara Brown, Emma Mead, Lena Al-Khudairy, Liane Azevedo, Grant J McGeechan, Louise Baur, Emma Loveman, Heather Clements, Pura Rayco-Solon, Nathalie Farpour-Lambert, Alessandro Demaio
This paper was originally published under a standard licence. This has now been amended to a CC BY licence in the PDF and HTML.
April 2, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30940915/sex-specific-longitudinal-associations-of-screen-viewing-time-in-children-at-2-3-years-with-adiposity-at-3-5-years
#12
Natarajan Padmapriya, Izzuddin M Aris, Mya Thway Tint, See Ling Loy, Shirong Cai, Kok Hian Tan, Lynette P Shek, Yap Seng Chong, Keith M Godfrey, Peter D Gluckman, Yung Seng Lee, Seang Mei Saw, Fabian Yap, Michael S Kramer, Jonathan Y Bernard, Falk Müller-Riemenschneider
OBJECTIVES: Screen-viewing in late childhood has been associated with adiposity and blood pressure (BP), but evidence is lacking at younger ages. To investigate the prospective associations of total and device-specific screen-viewing at age 2-3 years with BMI, sum of skinfold thicknesses and BP among Singaporean children at age 3-5 years. METHODS: As part of the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort, mothers/caregivers reported the time per day their 2 and 3-year-old children watched/used television, handheld devices and computers...
April 2, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30940914/the-relationship-between-body-mass-index-and-disability-free-survival-in-elderly-japanese-the-ohsaki-cohort-2006-study
#13
Shu Zhang, Yasutake Tomata, Fumiya Tanji, Yumi Sugawara, Ichiro Tsuji
BACKGROUND: The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and disability-free survival (DFS) remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a 10-year prospective cohort study of 12,666 Japanese individuals aged ≥ 65 y. Information on BMI and lifestyle factors was collected via a questionnaire in 2006. Functional disability data were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database. Subjects were divided into seven groups according to BMI (<19, 19-21, 21-23, 23-25, 25-27, 27-29 and ≥29)...
April 2, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30940913/association-of-accelerated-body-mass-index-gain-with-repeated-measures-of-blood-pressure-in-early-childhood
#14
Karen M Eny, Jonathon L Maguire, David W H Dai, Gerald Lebovic, Khosrow Adeli, Jill K Hamilton, Anthony J Hanley, Muhammad Mamdani, Brian W McCrindle, Mark S Tremblay, Patricia C Parkin, Catherine S Birken
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We examined the association for rates of age- and sex-standardized body mass index (zBMI) gain between 0-3, 3-18, and 18-36 months with BP in children at 36-72 months of age. METHODS: We collected repeated measures of zBMI and BP in 2502 children. zBMI was calculated using the World Health Organization standards. Each child's zBMI at birth and rates of zBMI gain in each period from birth to 36 months were estimated using linear spline multilevel models...
April 2, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30926955/effects-of-liraglutide-on-appetite-food-preoccupation-and-food-liking-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Jena Shaw Tronieri, Thomas A Wadden, Olivia Walsh, Robert I Berkowitz, Naji Alamuddin, Kathryn Gruber, Sharon Leonard, Zayna M Bakizada, Ariana M Chao
BACKGROUND: Some weight loss medications, including liraglutide 3.0 mg, are thought to facilitate weight loss by improving appetite control. However, no studies have evaluated their long-term appetitive effects. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study examined changes in appetite in a subsample of 113 adults with obesity (76.1% female, 55.8% white, BMI = 38.8 ± 4.8 kg/m2 ) who participated in a 52-week trial. Participants were randomized to intensive behavioral therapy alone (IBT-alone), IBT with liraglutide 3...
March 29, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30926954/comparison-of-the-associations-between-non-traditional-and-traditional-indices-of-adiposity-and-cardiovascular-mortality-an-observational-study-of-one-million-person-years-of-follow-up
#16
Anne Pernille Ofstad, Christine Sommer, Kåre I Birkeland, Marit Rokne Bjørgaas, Jon Michael Gran, Hanne Løvdal Gulseth, Odd Erik Johansen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The most widely used adiposity index, body mass index (BMI), is not optimal to evaluate cardiovascular (CV) risk associated with overweight and obesity. We aimed to explore the association between traditional and non-traditional adiposity indices and CV mortality, and compare their discriminative ability for CV death. METHODS: We studied participants (age 19-79 years, BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 ) from the population-based Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT 2)...
March 29, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30926953/alternative-waist-to-height-ratios-associated-with-risk-biomarkers-in-youth-with-diabetes-comparative-models-in-the-search-for-diabetes-in-youth-study
#17
Henry S Kahn, Jasmin Divers, Nora F Fino, Dana Dabelea, Ronny Bell, Lenna L Liu, Victor W Zhong, Sharon Saydah
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) estimates cardiometabolic risk in youth without need for growth charts by sex and age. Questions remain about whether waist circumference measured per protocol of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WNHA HtR) or World Health Organization (WWHO HtR) can better predict blood pressures and lipid parameters in youth. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: WHtR was measured under both anthropometric protocols among participants in the SEARCH Study, who were recently diagnosed with diabetes (ages 5-19 years; N = 2 773)...
March 29, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30926952/heterozygous-rare-genetic-variants-in-non-syndromic-early-onset-obesity
#18
Clara Serra-Juhé, Gabriel Á Martos-Moreno, Francesc Bou de Pieri, Raquel Flores, Julie A Chowen, Luis A Pérez-Jurado, Jesús Argente
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a very heterogeneous disorder at both the clinical and molecular levels and with high heritability. Several monogenic forms and genes with strong effects have been identified for non-syndromic severe obesity. Novel therapeutic interventions are in development for some genetic forms, emphasizing the importance of determining genetic contributions. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to define the contribution of rare single-nucleotide genetic variants (RSVs) in candidate genes to non-syndromic severe early-onset obesity (EOO; body mass index (BMI) >+3 standard deviation score, <3 years)...
March 29, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30926951/day-to-day-regularity-in-breakfast-consumption-is-associated-with-weight-status-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-women
#19
Mark A Guinter, Yong-Moon Park, Susan E Steck, Dale P Sandler
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that regular eating patterns (i.e., consistent day-to-day frequency and timing of consumption) may be favorable with respect to weight status, and breakfast may be a particularly important meal for weight maintenance. We examined the relationship between regular breakfast consumption habits and weight status among women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Modified Poisson regression models examined day-to-day regularity in breakfast consumption among 46,037 women in the prospective Sister Study cohort in relation to weight status...
March 29, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30926950/effects-of-imidazoline-like-drugs-on-liver-and-adipose-tissues-and-their-role-in-preventing-obesity-and-associated-cardio-metabolic-disorders
#20
Gaëlle Aubertin, Maud Weiss, Florian Traversi, Djamil Benameur, Philippe Choquet, Nassim Dali-Youcef, Françoise Pons, Séverine Sigrist, Hugues Greney, Laurent Monassier, Pascal Bousquet, Nathalie Niederhoffer
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We previously observed that selective agonists of the sympatho-inhibitory I1 imidazoline receptors (LNP ligands) have favorable effects on several cardiovascular and metabolic disorders defining the metabolic syndrome, including body weight. The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of LNPs on adiposity and the mechanisms involved, and to evaluate their impact on metabolic homeostasis. METHODS: Young Zucker fa/fa rats were treated with LNP599 (10 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks...
March 29, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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