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Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism

Alanna Weisman, George A Tomlinson, Lorraine L Lipscombe, Bruce A Perkins, Gillian A Hawker
Our study found an association between allopurinol and reduced risk of mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in subjects with diabetes. However, although this association was observed in analyses that classified time as exposed or unexposed to allopurinol and in analyses that classified time according to current dose categories, we found no association in analyses classifying time according to cumulative allopurinol dose. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 21, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Shahab Abtahi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
E Maddaloni, R L Coleman, P Pozzilli, R R Holman
AIMS: Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults (LADA) is diagnosed in up to 12% of adults with clinically-diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). LADA tend to have healthier cardiovascular (CV) risk profiles than T2D, but it remains uncertain whether their risk of CV events differ. We examined the risk of CV events in patients enrolled in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), according to their LADA status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes autoantibodies (AAb) were measured in 5,062 UKPDS participants...
May 17, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
William L Baker, Jan Beyer-Westendorf, Thomas J Bunz, Daniel Eriksson, Anna-Katharina Meinecke, Nitesh A Sood, Craig I Coleman
AIMS: To assess the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin for the prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and major adverse limb events (MALE) in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients' with type 2 diabetes (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using MarketScan data from 1/2012-12/2017, we identified oral anticoagulant (OAC)-naïve NVAF patients with comorbid T2D and ≥12-months of insurance coverage prior to rivaroxaban or warfarin initiation...
May 17, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Elizabeth M Garry, John B Buse, Mugdha Gokhale, Jennifer L Lund, Matthew E Nielson, Virginia Pate, Til Stürmer
AIM: Empirically demonstrates the effect of varying study design choices to evaluate the safety of pioglitazone on bladder cancer. METHODS: We identified Medicare beneficiaries aged >65 with diabetes between 2008 and 2015 and classified exposure (≥2 claims within 180 days) to glucose-lowering drugs (GLD; pioglitazone or other). The effects of varying the following study design parameters on bladder cancer risk were assessed - new versus existing drug use, choice of referent (all non-users and users of GLDs, non-insulin GLDs, and DPP-4's), and whether or not censoring accounted for treatment change...
May 14, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Dario Tuccinardi, Olivia M Farr, Jagriti Upadhyay, Sabrina M Oussaada, Maria I Klapa, Marco Candela, Simone Rampelli, Sylvain Lehoux, Iolanda Lázaro, Aleix Sala-Vila, Patrizia Brigidi, Richard D Cummings, Christos S Mantzoros
AIMS: To assess the effects of walnuts on cardiometabolic outcomes in obese subjects and to explore underlying mechanisms using novel methods including metabolomic, lipidomic, glycomic, and microbiome analysis integrated with lipid particle fractionation, appetite-regulating hormones and hemodynamic measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 10 obese subjects were enrolled in this cross-over, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients participated in two 5-day inpatient stays during which they consumed a smoothie containing 48g walnuts or a macronutrient-matched placebo smoothie without nuts, with a one-month washout period between the two visits...
May 14, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Keiichi Torimoto, Yosuke Okada, Yukiko Goshima, Akemi Tokutsu, Yasunori Sato, Yoshiya Tanaka
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of canagliflozin in reducing the required insulin dose and the risk of hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study was conducted in patients with T2D treated with insulin. They were randomly assigned to the control (n=17) and canagliflozin (n=17, plus 100 mg/day canagliflozin) groups. In both groups, a defined insulin dose adjustment protocol was applied to achieve the same level of glycemic control. The change from baseline in daily insulin dose was significantly smaller in the canagliflozin group (3...
May 10, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Olah Hakim, Oluwatoyosi Bello, Riccardo C Bonadonna, Cynthia Mohandas, Fariba Shojee-Moradie, Nicola Jackson, Linda Boselli, Brandon Whitcher, Haris Shuaib, K George M M Alberti, Janet L Peacock, A Margot Umpleby, Geoff Charles-Edwards, Stephanie A Amiel, Louise M Goff
Intrahepatic lipid (IHL) is linked with reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance. Despite their high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), there have been limited investigations of these relationships in Black populations. We investigated these relationships in 18 White European (WE) and 18 Black West African (BWA) men with T2D <5 years. They underwent magnetic resonance imaging to quantify IHL, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with [6,6 2 H2 ] glucose infusion to assess hepatic insulin sensitivity and a hyperglycemic clamp to assess insulin clearance...
May 10, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Martin Pfohl, Stefan Pscherer, Andreas Fritsche, Helmut Anderten, Anja Borck, Katrin Pegelow, Peter Bramlage, Jochen Seufert
Aim was to identify predictors of long-term response to the initiation of basal-supported oral therapy (BOT) with insulin glargine (IGlar-100). Patients from the observational TOP registry were grouped into those who had (responders) and who had not achieved (non-responders) their HBA1c target and/or FBG ≤110 mg/dL 12 months after IGlar-100 initiation. Independent predictors of treatment response were identified by regression analysis. Data for 2,444 patients were analysed (responders: n=1,610; non-responders: n=834)...
May 8, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Thomas R Pieber, Eva Svehlikova, Martina Brunner, Inge B Halberg, Karen Margrete Due Thomsen, Hanne Haahr
AIMS: To investigate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) versus insulin aspart (IAsp) in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, 61 subjects with T2D usually treated with insulin±oral antidiabetic drug(s) received single-dose faster aspart and IAsp (0.3 U/kg) at separate visits. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic assessment were collected frequently until 12 h post-dose...
May 8, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Katharina Mattishent, Kathryn Richardson, Ketan Dhatariya, George M Savva, Chris Fox, Yoon K Loke
AIMS: Older people with diabetes are susceptible to harm from hypoglycemia, however the consequences of hypoglycemia in older people with dementia are not known. We aimed to test association between hypoglycemia and serious adverse events in older patients with diabetes and dementia, and whether the consequences of hypoglycemia were affected by presence of dementia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cohort study using Clinical Practice Research Datalink in England (1997-2016)...
May 8, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Shahnam Sharif, Rolf Hh Groenwold, Yolanda van der Graaf, Gijs Fn Berkelmans, Maarten J Cramer, Frank Lj Visseren, Jan Westerink
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are at higher risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. Multiple risk factors associated with T2DM have been identified which may confer this higher risk. The aim of this study is to quantify the magnitude and specific contributions of known cardiovascular risk factors leading to higher cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality due to type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Mediation analysis was performed to assess the relative contributions of known classical risk factors for vascular disease in T2DM (insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, renal function, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and micro-albuminuria) and which proportion of the effect of T2DM on cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality these factors mediate in the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease (SMART) cohort consisting of 1910 T2DM patients...
May 7, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Katsiaryna Bykov, Mengdong He, Jessica M Franklin, Elizabeth M Garry, John D Seeger, Elisabetta Patorno
AIM: Recent years have witnessed a proliferation of observational research examining the association between glucose-lowering medications and cancer, paired with an increasing concern on the quality of the produced evidence. Our objective was to review published studies in this area to identify the most common methodological challenges and sources of bias. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed to identify observational studies on glucose-lowering medications and cancer published between January 2000 and January 2016...
May 7, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Se-Hong Kim, Bo-Yong Park, Kyoungseob Byeon, Hyunjin Park, Youngkook Kim, Young-Mi Eun, Ju-Hye Chung
AIMS: We conducted 4-week randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial to examine the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on functional brain connectivity and body weight in adults with obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of the 45 volunteers with obesity aged between 18 and 70 years (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2 according to the obesity criterion for an Asian population), 36 subjects (54...
May 3, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Christian Anholm, Preman Kumarathurai, Amirsalar Samkani, Lene R Pedersen, Raymond C Boston, Olav W Nielsen, Ole P Kristiansen, Mogens Fenger, Sten Madsbad, Ahmad Sajadieh, Steen Bendix Haugaard
Elevated levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) play a role in insulin resistance, impaired beta-cell function and is a denominator of the abnormal atherogenic lipid profile characterizing obese type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. We hypothesized that the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in combination with metformin would reduce lipolysis. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial 41 T2DM patients with coronary artery disease were randomized and treated with liraglutide-metformin vs...
May 3, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Qutuba G Karwi, Liyan Zhang, Tariq R Altamimi, Cory S Wagg, Vaibhav Patel, Golam M Uddin, Alice R Joerg, Raj S Padwal, David E Johnstone, Arya Sharma, Gavin Y Oudit, Gary D Lopaschuk
AIMS: Obesity is associated with high rates of cardiac fatty acid oxidation, low rates of glucose oxidation, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. Whether weight loss can lessen the severity of heart failure associated with obesity is not known. We therefore determined the effect of weight loss on cardiac energy metabolism and the severity of heart failure in obese mice with heart failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Obesity and heart failure were induced by feeding mice a high-fat (HF) diet and subjecting them to a transverse aortic constriction (TAC)...
May 3, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Elizabeth Selvin, Dan Wang, John William McEvoy, Stephen P Juraschek, Mariana Lazo, Pavel Hamet, Mark Cooper, Michel Marre, Bryan Williams, Stephen Harrap, John Chalmers, Mark Woodward
BACKGROUND: Low 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is a marker of glycosuric hyperglycemia. We evaluated 1,5-AG with clinical outcomes and assessed the effects of glucose- and blood pressure-lowering interventions on change in 1,5-AG in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We measured 1,5-AG in 6,826 stored samples at baseline and a random subsample of 684 participants at the 1-year follow-up visit in the ADVANCE trial. We examined baseline 1,5-AG (<6, 6-10, ≥10 ug/mL) with microvascular and macrovascular events and mortality using Cox regression models during 5 years of follow-up...
May 3, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Juan P Frias, Alan G Wynne, Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek, Dagmar Bartaskova, David A Cox, Brad Woodward, Ying G Li, Lai S Tham, Zvonko Milicevic
AIMS: Dulaglutide, a once weekly GLP-1 receptor agonist, is approved at 2 doses (1.5 mg and 0.75 mg) for treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Two higher dulaglutide doses (3.0 and 4.5 mg) were evaluated for safety and efficacy to determine if these doses warrant further study for improved glucose and body weight control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This 18-week, double-blind, phase 2 trial randomised 318 patients with T2D on ≥1500 mg metformin to receive subcutaneous injection of placebo (n=82), dulaglutide 1...
May 3, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Regitse H Christensen, Christian S Hansen, Bernt Johan von Scholten, Magnus T Jensen, Bente K Pedersen, Peter Schnohr, Tina Vilsbøll, Peter Rossing, Peter G Jørgensen
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) adipose tissues with myocardial function in type 2 diabetes (T2D). EAT and PAT were measured by ultrasound in 770 patients with T2D and 234 age and sex-matched non-diabetic controls. Echocardiography was performed, including tissue Doppler imaging and 2D speckle tracking. Patients with T2D vs. controls had increased EAT (4.6±1.8 mm vs. 3.4±1.2 mm, p<0.0001) and PAT (6.3±2.8 mm vs. 5.3±2.4 mm, p<0.0001)...
May 3, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Jiaxing Tian, De Jin, Bao Qi, Ding Qiyou, Zhang Haiyu, Zezheng Gao, Juexian Song, Fengmei Lian, Xiaolin Tong
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has recorded knowledge of diabetes for over 2000 years. Because a considerable number of TCM studies exhibit design defects, such as limited intervention duration, small sample sizes, and inconsistent efficacy evaluations, the role of TCM in the treatment of diabetes cannot be fully elucidated. In this review, we evaluated randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prediabetes, diabetes, and diabetic complications published in the past decade. We found that TCM could significantly improve glucose control and clinical indices in patients with diabetes and effectively delay the progression of diabetes...
May 3, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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