Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism | Page 2

Kåre I Birkeland, Johan Bodegard, Jan W Eriksson, Anna Norhammar, Hermann Haller, Gerard C M Linssen, Amitava Banerjee, Marcus Thuresson, Suguru Okami, Elena Garal-Pantaler, Jetty Overbeek, Jil Billy Mamza, Ruiqi Zhang, Toshitaka Yajima, Issei Komuro, Takashi Kadowaki
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), referred to as cardiorenal disease, have in clinical trials recently been shown to be preventable in type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined the manifestation of cardiovascular- and renal disease (CVRD) in T2D patients initially free from CVRD and, second, the associated mortality risks with these diseases. METHODS: CVRD-free patients were identified in health care records from England, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden at a fixed date...
May 3, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Domenico Tricò, Alfonso Galderisi, Andrea Mari, David Polidori, Brittany Galuppo, Bridget Pierpont, Stephanie Samuels, Nicola Santoro, Sonia Caprio
AIMS: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) has been associated with reduced endogenous insulin clearance (EIC) and hepatic insulin resistance (HIRI). These relationships, however, might be differentially affected by the ethnic background, as populations of African ancestry are typically featured with reduced intrahepatic fat content (HFF%) but impaired EIC. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of the ethnicity on the relationships between HFF%, EIC and HIRI. METHODS: The HFF% was quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in a multi-ethnic cohort of 632 obese youths from 7 to 18 years of age at baseline and after a 2-year follow-up...
May 3, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Nicola Morea, Ravi Retnakaran, Josep Vidal, Vanita R Aroda, Minzhi Liu, Aramesh Saremi, Francesco Giorgino
Globally, nearly half of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) do not successfully achieve target HbA1c with basal insulin, despite meeting fasting plasma glucose (FPG) targets. In this post hoc analysis of the LixiLan-L study, we determined whether iGlarLixi, a fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine Gla-100 (iGlar) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide (Lixi), addresses the challenge of reducing residual hyperglycaemia in patients with T2D. In LixiLan-L, a randomized, open-label study, 1018 patients with T2D on basal insulin for ≥6 months ± oral antidiabetes drugs entered a 6-week run-in period, during which they were switched to and/or optimized for a daily dose of iGlar while continuing only metformin...
May 3, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
M Marta Mazzucato, Paola Fioretto, Angelo Avogaro
Glomerular hyperfiltration is a common finding in patients with diabetes and poor glycemic control; whole-kidney hyperfiltration, with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) values above normal, should be differentiated from single nephron hyperfiltration, consequent to nephron loss and compensatory hyperfiltration of the remnant nephrons. This is the result of an imbalance between the vascular tone of the afferent and efferent arterioles. Hormonal influences and/or an impaired tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) system, due to an excessive sodium (Na+ ) and glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule, contribute to determine hyperfiltration...
April 29, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Sofie Persson, Pierre Johansen, Emelie Andersson, Peter Lindgren, Desiree Thielke, Brian Larsen Thorsted, Johan Jendle, Katarina Steen Carlsson
AIMS: To analyse days absent from work related to individual microvascular, macrovascular, and other complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to identify key drivers of absence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: National health and socioeconomic individual-level data were analysed for years 1997-2016 for people with T2D, and 5:1 age-, sex-, and residential region matched controls using Swedish national administrative registers linkage-based on personal identity numbers. Regression analyses accounting for individual-level clustering and education were estimated to obtain days absent by individual complications...
April 24, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Viral N Shah, Julia M Grimsmann, Nicole Foster, Axel Dost, Kellee Miller, Marianne Pavel, Ruth S Weinstock, Wolfgang Karges, David M Maahs, Reinhard W Holl
AIM: To examine the control of cardiovascular risk factors in type 1 diabetes (T1D) registries from the USA and Germany/Austria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on individuals aged ≥12 years with T1D for ≥1 year, from the T1D Exchange Clinic Network (T1DX, USA) and the Prospective Diabetes Follow-up Registry (DPV, Germany/Austria) between 1/1/2016 and March 31, 2018 were analyzed. Linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age groups, sex, duration of diabetes, and minority status were used to compare clinical characteristics and achievement of diabetes management targets between registries...
April 24, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Annemarie B van der Aart-van der Beek, Daniel H van Raalte, Cristian Guja, Klaas Hoogenberg, Lisa J Suchower, Elise Hardy, C David Sjöström, Hiddo J L Heerspink
AIMS: Data regarding the albuminuria-lowering effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease are limited. We examined the albuminuria-lowering effect of exenatide once weekly (EQW) compared with active glucose-lowering comparators in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and increased urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR). METHODS: Six randomized double-blind and open-label phase III studies were pooled in a post-hoc, exploratory analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EQW versus non-GLP1 comparators in patients with T2D and baseline uACR ≥30 mg/g...
April 23, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Stefano Del Prato, Juan Pablo Frias, Lawrence Blonde, Vanita R Aroda, Niam Shehadeh, Aramesh Saremi, Terry Dex, Elisabeth Niemoeller, Elisabeth Souhami, Minzhi Liu, Julio Rosenstock
AIMS: β-cell function declines over time in type 2 diabetes (T2D), thus efficacy of iGlarLixi by C-peptide levels and duration of diabetes was evaluated in an exploratory analysis of the LixiLan-G study. METHODS: LixiLan-G was a 26-week, randomized, open-label study in adults with T2D inadequately controlled while on glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), with metformin, with/without pioglitazone and/or a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor. This analysis investigated the efficacy of switching to iGlarLixi by fasting baseline quartile C-peptide levels and baseline quartile of duration of T2D compared with continued GLP-1 RA use...
April 23, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Sachin Khunti, Nitisha Khunti, Samuel Seidu, Kamlesh Khunti
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and sent each country scrambling to review emergency healthcare provisions. There is global evidence of each nation struggling to effectively manage the number of people being diagnosed with the virus. These are testing times which have not been experienced in recent generations and there are a number of insecurities regarding the management of people with COVID-19 and cardiometabolic diseases...
April 21, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Gyuri Kim, Soo Lim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Ie Byung Park, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Cheol-Young Park, Su Kyoung Kwon, Hye Soon Kim, Seok Won Park, Sin Gon Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Eun Sook Kim, Choon Hee Chung, Kang Seo Park, Mikyung Kim, Dong Jin Chung, Chang Beom Lee, Tae Ho Kim, Moon-Kyu Lee
AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of evogliptin compared to linagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this 12-week multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, and 12-week open-label extension study, a total of 207 patients with T2DM who had HbA1c levels of 7.0-10.0% were randomized 1:1 to receive evogliptin 5 mg (n = 102) or linagliptin 5 mg (n = 105) daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline HbA1c at week 12...
April 21, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Geremia B Bolli, Wolfgang Landgraf, Zsolt Bosnyak, Lydie Melas-Melt, Philip D Home
The relationship between baseline fasting C-peptide (FCP) and glucose control was examined in insulin-naive people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with oral anti-hyperglycaemic drugs commencing basal insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300) or 100 U/mL (Gla-100) in the absence of sulfonylurea/glinides. Participants with FCP measurement from the EDITION 3 trial (n = 867) were stratified according to baseline FCP (≤0.40, >0.40-1.20, >1.20 nmol/L); 11.0%, 70.9%, and 18.1% contributed to each group...
April 21, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Anna R Kahkoska, Milan S Geybels, Klara R Klein, Frederik F Kreiner, Nikolaus Marx, Michael A Nauck, Richard E Pratley, Benjamin O Wolthers, John B Buse
AIMS: Ahlqvist et al used unsupervised clustering methods and data from Swedish individuals with recent-onset diabetes to identify populations at differential risk of complications. We aimed to validate these clusters in three global populations with long-standing type 2 diabetes (T2D) at high cardiovascular risk and test for differences in the risk of major diabetes complications and survival endpoints. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assigned participants from recent global outcomes trials (DEVOTE [n = 7637], LEADER [n = 9340] and SUSTAIN-6 [n = 3297]) to the previously defined clusters according to age at diabetes diagnosis, baseline glycated haemoglobin and body mass index (BMI)...
April 20, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Panatda Saenkham, Jamie Jennings-Gee, Braden Hanson, Nancy D Kock, L Garry Adams, Sargurunathan Subashchandrabose
AIMS: Diabetes is a leading risk factor for development of urinary tract infection (UTI). UTI caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), and other uropathogens is a common infectious condition affecting millions of people annually. Gliflozins are diabetes medications that achieve normoglycemia by increasing urinary glucose excretion. We tested the effects of dapagliflozin-induced hyperglucosuria on ascending bacterial UTI in a mouse model. METHODS: Dapagliflozin or canagliflozin was used to induce hyperglucosuria in non-diabetic adult female mice prior to transurethral inoculation with UPEC or Klebsiella pneumoniae...
April 20, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
In Bok An, Mi Sun Byun, Sang In Yang, Yuri Choi, Jung Won Woo, Hak Chul Jang, Young Chul Sung
AIMS: Despite their attractiveness as novel antidiabetic agents, GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have provided limited therapeutic benefits due to common drug nonadherence, due mainly to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Considering different GLP-1 receptor density throughout the organs, binding modulation to change receptor binding mechanism could be tried for the invention of novel GLP-1 RAs with better safety profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We constructed a novel glycosylated Fc-fused GLP-1 RA (GLP-1-gFc) and determined binding affinity and potency using in-vitro instrumental and cell-based analyses followed by in-vivo comparison of glucose-lowering and side effects between GLP-1-gFc and dulaglutide...
April 20, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Toru Kitazawa, Hiroaki Seino, Hiroshi Ohashi, Takeshi Inazawa, Masahiro Inoue, Masumi Ai, Midori Fujishiro, Hisamoto Kuroda, Masayo Yamada, Motonobu Anai, Hisamitsu Ishihara
Metformin plus a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) is the most common therapy for Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. This 24-week, multicentre, open-label, parallel-group trial randomized patients on dual therapy to add-on tofogliflozin (20 mg/day, n = 33) or glimepiride (0.5 mg/day, n = 31). The primary outcome was change in body fat percentage. The secondary outcomes included changes in HbA1c, fat mass, fat-free mass, liver function variables and uric acid. Tofogliflozin and glimepiride reduced HbA1c to a similar extent...
April 20, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Juyi Li, Xiufang Wang, Jian Chen, Xiuran Zuo, Hongmei Zhang, Aiping Deng
This study included 658 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19. Forty-two (6.4%) out of 658 patients presented with ketosis on admission with no obvious fever or diarrhea. They had a median age of 47.0 years (IQR, 38.0-70.3), while 16 (38.1%) were men. Patients with ketosis were younger (median age: 47.0 vs 58.0 years, P = 0.003) and had greater prevalence of fatigue (31.0% vs 10.6%, P < 0.001), diabetes (35.7% vs 18.5%, P = 0.007), and digestive disorders (31.0% vs 12.0%, P < 0...
April 20, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Chantal Mathieu, Gottfried Rudofsky, Moshe Phillip, Eiichi Araki, Marcus Lind, Niki Arya, Fredrik Thorén, Markus Florian Scheerer, Nayyar Iqbal, Paresh Dandona
AIMS: To investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin as an adjunct to adjustable insulin in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and inadequate glycemic control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DEPICT-2 (Dapagliflozin Evaluation in Patients with Inadequately Controlled T1D; NCT02460978) was a placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter, Phase III study of adults with T1D (HbA1c 7.5-10.5%) randomized (1:1:1) to receive dapagliflozin 5 mg, 10 mg, or placebo...
April 20, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Yasuo Terauchi, Takahiro Nakama, Robert Spranger, Atsushi Amano, Takahiro Inoue, Elisabeth Niemoeller
AIMS: To assess efficacy and safety of 26-week treatment with insulin glargine/lixisenatide fixed-ratio combination (iGlarLixi) compared with insulin glargine U100 (iGlar) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled on oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This phase 3, multicenter, open label, 1:1 randomized, parallel-group study compared efficacy of iGlarLixi and iGlar in patients with T2DM, HbA1c of ≥7...
April 14, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Francesco Giorgino, Jiten Vora, Peter Fenici, Anna Solini
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardiovascular risk in these patients should be considered as a continuum, and comprehensive treatment strategies should aim to target multiple disease risk factors. Large-scale clinical trials of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have demonstrated an impact on cardiovascular outcomes, including heart failure hospitalization and cardiovascular death, which appears to be independent of their glucose-lowering efficacy...
April 14, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Xiaomei Zhang, Yujin Ma, Hong Chen, Ying Lou, Linong Ji, Lulu Chen
BACKGROUND: Chinese guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) recommend basal or premixed insulins as insulin starters after failed oral antihyperglycaemic medication (OAM). This pragmatic study compared effectiveness and safety of add-on basal insulin analog (BI) and mid-mixture insulin analog (MMI; 50:50 premixed insulin) as starter insulin regimens in Chinese patients with T2D in a real-world setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multicentre, open-label, randomized, parallel, pragmatic trial...
April 8, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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