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Open Forum Infectious Diseases

Antoine Chaillon, Constance Delaugerre, Bluma Brenner, Alix Armero, Catherine Capitant, Marie Laure Nere, Nicolas Leturque, Gilles Pialoux, Eric Cua, Cecile Tremblay, Davey M Smith, Cecile Goujard, Laurence Meyer, Jean Michel Molina, Marie Laure Chaix
Background: A better understanding of HIV transmission dynamics among populations at high risk is important for development of prevention strategies. We determined HIV transmission networks from infected individuals enrolled in the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) IPERGAY trial in combination with the ANRS PRIMO and Montreal PHI cohorts to identify and characterize active clusters of transmission in this high-risk population. Methods: Genotypic resistance tests were performed on plasma samples from 31 IPERGAY participants...
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Thomas Rogers, Kevin Sok, Timothy Erickson, Elizabeth Aguilera, Susan H Wootton, Kristy O Murray, Rodrigo Hasbun
The impact of antibiotic therapy on the diagnosis of healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis (HCAVM) is unknown. Antibiotics were administered before obtaining cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 217 out of 326 (66%) patients with HCAVM, and they impacted the sensitivity of the cerebrospinal fluid Gram stain and culture ( P ≤ .004).
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Michael A Pfaller, Daniel J Diekema, John D Turnidge, Mariana Castanheira, Ronald N Jones
Background: The emergence of antifungal resistance threatens effective treatment of invasive fungal infection (IFI). Invasive candidiasis is the most common health care-associated IFI. We evaluated the activity of fluconazole (FLU) against 20 788 invasive isolates of Candida (37 species) collected from 135 medical centers in 39 countries (1997-2016). The activity of anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin (MCF) was evaluated against 15 308 isolates worldwide (2006-2016). Methods: Species identification was accomplished using phenotypic (1997-2001), genotypic, and proteomic methods (2006-2016)...
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Rodrigo E Mendes, Ronald N Jones, Leah N Woosley, Vincent Cattoir, Mariana Castanheira
Background: Sequencing technologies and techniques have seen remarkable transformation and innovation that have significantly affected sequencing capability. Data analyses have replaced sequencing as the main challenge. This paper provides an overview on applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) and analysis and discusses the benefits and challenges. In addition, this document shows results from using NGS and bioinformatics tools to screen for β-lactamase genes and assess the epidemiological structure of Escherichia coli- and Klebsiella pneumoniae -causing bloodstream (BSIs) and urinary tract (UTIs) infections in patients hospitalized in the United States during the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program for 2016...
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Dee Shortridge, Ana C Gales, Jennifer M Streit, Michael D Huband, Athanasios Tsakris, Ronald N Jones
Background: The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program was established in 1997 and encompasses over 750 000 bacterial isolates from ≥400 medical centers worldwide. Among the pathogens tested, Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains a common cause of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bloodstream infections and pneumonia in hospitalized patients. In the present study, we reviewed geographic and temporal trends in resistant phenotypes of P. aeruginosa over 20 years of the SENTRY Program. Methods: From 1997 to 2016, 52 022 clinically significant consecutive isolates were submitted from ≥200 medical centers representing the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, Latin America, and North America...
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Michael A Pfaller, Martin Cormican, Robert K Flamm, Rodrigo E Mendes, Ronald N Jones
Background: The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program was established in 1997 and presently encompasses more than 750 000 bacterial isolates from over 400 medical centers worldwide. Among these pathogens, enterococci represents a prominent cause of bloodstream (BSIs), intra-abdominal (IAIs), skin and skin structure, and urinary tract infections (UTIs). In the present study, we reviewed geographic and temporal trends in Enterococcus species and resistant phenotypes identified throughout the SENTRY Program...
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Daniel J Diekema, Michael A Pfaller, Dee Shortridge, Marcos Zervos, Ronald N Jones
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is among the most common human pathogens, with therapy complicated by the epidemic spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Methods: The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program evaluated the in vitro activity of >20 antimicrobials against 191 460 clinical S. aureus isolates collected from 427 centers in 45 countries from 1997 to 2016. Each center contributed isolates and clinical data for consecutive episodes of bacteremia, pneumonia in hospitalized patients, urinary tract infection, and skin and skin structure infection...
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Ana C Gales, Harald Seifert, Deniz Gur, Mariana Castanheira, Ronald N Jones, Helio S Sader
Background: Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii ( Acb ) complex and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia represent frequent causes of hospital-acquired infections. We evaluated the frequency and resistance rates of Acb complex and S. maltophilia isolates from medical centers enrolled in the SENTRY Program. Methods: A total of 13 752 Acb complex and 6467 S. maltophilia isolates were forwarded to a monitoring laboratory by 259 participating sites from the Asia-Pacific region, Latin America, Europe, and North America between 1997 and 2016...
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Mariana Castanheira, Lalitagauri M Deshpande, Rodrigo E Mendes, Rafael Canton, Helio S Sader, Ronald N Jones
Background: A total of 178 825 Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected in 199 hospitals from 42 countries worldwide over 20 years (1997 to 2016) of the SENTRY Program were susceptibility tested by reference broth microdilution methods. Methods: Trends in percentages over time were analyzed by the χ2 test. Results were reported as the percentage difference between the first (1997-2000) and the last (2013-2016) time period. Results: Enterobacteriaceae exhibiting resistance to cephalosporins (extended-spectrum β-lactamase [ESBL] phenotype) and carbapenem resistance (CRE) significantly increased ( P < 0...
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Helio S Sader, Rodrigo E Mendes, Jennifer Le, Gerald Denys, Robert K Flamm, Ronald N Jones
Background: The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program monitors the frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms from various infection types worldwide. In this investigation, we evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected worldwide over 20 years (1997-2016). Methods: A total of 65 993 isolates were consecutively collected (1 per infection episode) from North America (NA; n = 34 626; 2 nations), Europe (EUR; n = 19 123; 23 nations), the Asia-Pacific region (APAC; n = 7111; 10 nations), and Latin America (LATAM; n = 5133; 7 nations) and tested for susceptibility using reference broth microdilution methods...
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Helio S Sader, Paul R Rhomberg, Andrew S Fuhrmeister, Rodrigo E Mendes, Robert K Flamm, Ronald N Jones
Surveillance represents an important informational tool for planning actions to monitor emerging antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial resistance surveillance (ARS) programs may have many different designs and can be grouped in 2 major categories based on their main objectives: (1) public health ARS programs and (2) industry-sponsored/product-oriented ARS programs. In general, public health ARS programs predominantly focus on health care and infection control, whereas industry ARS programs focus on an investigational or recently approved molecule(s)...
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Andrew S Fuhrmeister, Ronald N Jones
The origins of how and why the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program was created are briefly described, with additional details on how the isolates are collected and tested as well as the important uses of the data in monitoring antimicrobial resistance and drug development.
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Travis Schreier, Renslow Sherer, Harlan Sayles, Donna M Jacobsen, Susan Swindells, Sara H Bares
Background: We sought to characterize human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) practitioners' recommendations to patients regarding treatment as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and condom use among persons with HIV (PWH) with viral suppression and individuals receiving PrEP. Methods: A brief survey about counseling practices was distributed electronically to previous attendees of an International Antiviral Society-USA continuing medical education activity...
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Gustavo E Velásquez, Moises A Huaman, Kimberly R Powell, Susan E Cohn, Shobha Swaminathan, Martine Outlaw, Gail Schulte, Quinteka McNeil, Judith S Currier, Carlos Del Rio, Jose Castillo-Mancilla
We surveyed awardees of the Minority HIV Investigator Mentoring Program (MHIMP) of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Most reported clinical specialization in infectious diseases or HIV medicine (86%), and all but 1 (95%) are engaged in medical/health sciences research. The MHIMP helped retain early-career minority investigators in HIV/AIDS-related research.
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Alan E Gross, Danny Hanna, Susan A Rowan, Susan C Bleasdale, Katie J Suda
Background: Most antibiotic use in the United States occurs in the outpatient setting, and 10% of these prescriptions are generated by dentists. The development of comprehensive antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) in the dental setting is nascent, and therefore we describe the implementation of a dental ASP. Methods: A collaborative team of dentist, pharmacist, and physician leaders conducted a baseline needs assessment and literature evaluation to identify opportunities to improve antibiotic prescribing by dentists within Illinois' largest oral health care provider for Medicaid recipients...
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Hans H Liu, Lisa Cushinotto, Olarae Giger, Gary Daum, Patricia McBride, Elizabeth A Negron, Kurt Vandegrift, Luciano Kapelusznik
Tick-borne illnesses are increasing but are often underreported. Few cases of babesiosis have been reported from Pennsylvania. Our 4-hospital system in southeastern Pennsylvania saw a rise in cases from 7 or fewer yearly in 2008-2014 to 26 cases in 2015. There appear to be multiple potential causes of this increase in frequency.
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Pranita D Tamma, Sara E Cosgrove, Edina Avdic, Karen C Carroll, Patricia J Simner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Catherine E Oldenburg, Ali Sié, Boubacar Coulibaly, Lucienne Ouermi, Clarisse Dah, Charlemagne Tapsoba, Till Bärnighausen, Elodie Lebas, Ahmed M Arzika, Susie Cummings, Lina Zhong, Thomas M Lietman, Jeremy D Keenan, Thuy Doan
Cohabiting children may share components of their intestinal microbiome. We evaluated whether receipt of azithromycin in one sibling confers changes to the intestinal microbiome in an untreated sibling compared with placebo in a randomized controlled trial. We found no evidence of an indirect effect of antibiotic use in cohabiting children. Clinical Trials Registrations: NCT03187834.
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Kimia Kamelian, Katherine J Lepik, William Chau, Benita Yip, Wendy W Zhang, Viviane Dias Lima, Marjorie A Robbins, Conan Woods, Andrea Olmstead, Jeffrey B Joy, Rolando Barrios, P Richard Harrigan
Background: Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are highly efficacious and well tolerated antiretrovirals with fewer adverse side-effects relative to other classes of antiretrovirals. The use of INSTIs raltegravir, elvitegravir, and dolutegravir has increased dramatically over recent years. However, there is limited information about the evolution and prevalence of INSTI resistance mutations in clinical human immunodeficiency virus populations. Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus-1-positive individuals ≥19 years were included if they received ≥1 dispensed prescription of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in British Columbia between 2009 and 2016 (N = 9358)...
March 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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