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David J Flavell, Suzanne E Holmes, Sarah L Warnes, Sopsamorn U Flavell
We have previously shown that antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) cooperates with immunotoxin (IT)-mediated killing of human leukaemia cells in an severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (SCID-HSB-2 mice), but not in an equivalent non-obese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mouse model. In these earlier studies, we reasoned that diminished ADCC due to the functional deficit in natural killer (NK) cell activity in NOD/SCID mice resulted in a failure of effective perforin/granzyme-mediated cytotoxicity necessary for the delivery of the augmentative effect...
February 16, 2019: Biomedicines
Marco Cicciù, Luca Fiorillo, Alan Scott Herford, Salvatore Crimi, Alberto Bianchi, Cesare D'Amico, Luigi Laino, Gabriele Cervino
BACKGROUND: In recent years, many advances have been made in the fields of bioengineering and biotechnology. Many methods have been proposed for the in vitro study of anatomical structures and alloplastic structures. Many steps forward have been made in the field of prosthetics and grafts and one of the most debated problems lies in the biomimetics and biocompatibility of the materials used. The contact surfaces between alloplastic material and fabric are under study, and this has meant that the surfaces were significantly improved...
February 12, 2019: Biomedicines
Haruki Koike, Masahisa Katsuno
Transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis is caused by systemic deposition of wild-type or variant amyloidogenic TTR (ATTRwt and ATTRv, respectively). ATTRwt amyloidosis has traditionally been termed senile systemic amyloidosis, while ATTRv amyloidosis has been called familial amyloid polyneuropathy. Although ATTRwt amyloidosis has classically been regarded as one of the causes of cardiomyopathy occurring in the elderly population, recent developments in diagnostic techniques have significantly expanded the concept of this disease...
February 5, 2019: Biomedicines
Subrat Khanal, Pranita Ghimire, Amit S Dhamoon
We would like to thank Dr. Atkinson for his comments on our review article on the manifestations of adenoviral infections in humans. [...].
February 2, 2019: Biomedicines
Richard L Atkinson
In their comprehensive review on adenoviruses, Khanal et al. omitted obesity as a disease caused by adenovirus 36 (Adv36). Animal studies have shown that experimental infection with Adv36 causes increased adiposity, and human association studies have shown that prior infection with Adv36 is correlated with greater body weight in humans in multiple countries of the world.
January 22, 2019: Biomedicines
Sara A Mohamed, Shahinaz Shalaby, Soumia Brakta, Lelyand Elam, Amro Elsharoud, Ayman Al-Hendy
BACKGROUND: Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a challenging disease, with limited treatment options at the moment. Umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) have demonstrated promising regenerative abilities in several diseases including POI. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A pre-clinical murine case versus vehicle control randomized study. Two experiments ran in parallel in each of the three groups. The first was to prove the ability of UCMSCs in restoring ovarian functions...
January 18, 2019: Biomedicines
Omar Alkharabsheh, Arthur E Frankel
Overcoming the leukemia stem cell resistance to intensive chemotherapy has been an area of extensive research over the last two decades. Advances and greater understanding of the molecular biology of leukemia stem cells are in rapid progress. Targeted therapies are currently being used in clinical practice with reasonable response rates, but a cure is being achieved in only a small percentage of patients, most likely due to tumor mutational heterogeneity. A genetically engineered diphtheria toxin fused with interleukin-3 (SL-401 or tagraxofusp) has shown robust activity in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm and promising response rates in different myeloid malignancies, including eradication of minimal residual disease...
January 5, 2019: Biomedicines
Sasha Mikhael, Advaita Punjala-Patel, Larisa Gavrilova-Jordan
The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is a tightly regulated system controlling female reproduction. HPO axis dysfunction leading to ovulation disorders can be classified into three categories defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Group I ovulation disorders involve hypothalamic failure characterized as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Group II disorders display a eugonadal state commonly associated with a wide range of endocrinopathies. Finally, group III constitutes hypergonadotropic hypogonadism secondary to depleted ovarian function...
January 4, 2019: Biomedicines
Sultana Mehbuba Hossain, Jayalaxmi Shetty, Kyi Kyi Tha, Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury
AZ628 is a hydrophobic Raf-kinase inhibitor (rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma) currently in clinical trial of various cancer. The physicochemical properties of hydrophobic drugs that affect the drug-particle interactions and cause aggregation of drugs and particles might be the key aspect to impede effective drug delivery. Retaining smaller particle size is the prerequisite to overcome the opsonization and improve cytotoxicity in the targeted region. Carbonate apatite (CA), an attractive biodegradable vector, has been used to carry both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs and release the payloads inside the cells following endocytosis...
January 3, 2019: Biomedicines
Nelson S Yee, Nikki P Lee
The identification and development of cancer biomarkers and targets have greatly accelerated progress towards precision medicine in oncology. [...].
January 2, 2019: Biomedicines
Jennifer J Chae-Kim, Larisa Gavrilova-Jordan
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is the loss of normal hormonal and reproductive function of ovaries in women before age 40 as the result of premature depletion of oocytes. The incidence of POI increases with age in reproductive-aged women, and it is highest in women by the age of 40 years. Reproductive function and the ability to have children is a defining factor in quality of life for many women. There are several methods of fertility preservation available to women with POI. Procreative management and preventive strategies for women with or at risk for POI are reviewed...
December 28, 2018: Biomedicines
Daniel A Vallera, Robert J Kreitman
Few immunotoxins or targeted toxins have become mainline cancer therapies. Still immunotoxins continue to be of major interest and subject of research and development as alternative therapies for drug resistant cancer. A major matter of concern continues to be immunogenicity exemplified by the anti-toxin response of the treated patient. Since some of our most effective toxins are bacterial in nature and bacterial proteins are highly immunogenic, this review describes some efforts to address this pressing issue...
December 21, 2018: Biomedicines
Siddhartha Roy, Piya Ghosh, Israr Ahmed, Madhumita Chakraborty, Gitashri Naiya, Basusree Ghosh
Intracellular regulatory pathways are replete with protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, offering attractive targets for therapeutic interventions. So far, most drugs are targeted toward enzymes and extracellular receptors. Protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions have long been considered as "undruggable". Protein-DNA interactions, in particular, present a difficult challenge due to the repetitive nature of the B-DNA. Recent studies have provided several breakthroughs; however, a design methodology for these classes of inhibitors is still at its infancy...
December 18, 2018: Biomedicines
Giulia Cardamone, Elvezia Maria Paraboschi, Giulia Soldà, Stefano Duga, Janna Saarela, Rosanna Asselta
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced by macrophages and leading to oxidative stress, have been implicated as mediators of demyelination and axonal injury in both MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the murine model of the disease. On the other hand, reduced ROS levels can increase susceptibility to autoimmunity. In this work, we screened for association with MS 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two microsatellite markers in the five genes ( NCF1 , NCF2 , NCF4 , CYBA , and CYBB ) of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX2) system, the enzymatic pathway producing ROS in the brain and neural tissues, in 347 Finnish patients with MS and 714 unaffected family members...
December 18, 2018: Biomedicines
Manuel E Otero-Ramirez, Toby Passioura, Hiroaki Suga
Macrocyclic peptides are an emerging class of bioactive compounds for therapeutic use. In part, this is because they are capable of high potency and excellent target affinity and selectivity. Over the last decade, several biochemical techniques have been developed for the identification of bioactive macrocyclic peptides, allowing for the rapid isolation of high affinity ligands to a target of interest. A common feature of these techniques is a general reliance on thioether formation to effect macrocyclization...
December 13, 2018: Biomedicines
Hiba Mohammed, Elena Maria Varoni, Andrea Cochis, Massimo Cordaro, Patrizia Gallenzi, Romeo Patini, Edoardo Staderini, Carlo Lajolo, Lia Rimondini, Vincenzo Rocchetti
The human body is naturally colonized by a huge number of different commensal microbial species, in a relatively stable equilibrium. When this microbial community undergoes dysbiosis at any part of the body, it interacts with the innate immune system and results in a poor health status, locally or systemically. Research studies show that bacteria are capable of significantly influencing specific cells of the immune system, resulting in many diseases, including a neoplastic response. Amongst the multiple different types of diseases, pancreatic cancer and liver cirrhosis were significantly considered in this paper, as they are major fatal diseases...
December 11, 2018: Biomedicines
Ping-Chih Hsu, Cheng-Ta Yang, David M Jablons, Liang You
The programmed death-ligand 1(PD-L1)/PD-1 pathway is an immunological checkpoint in cancer cells. The binding of PD-L1 and PD-1 promotes T-cell tolerance and helps tumor cells escape from host immunity. Immunotherapy targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 axis has been developed as an anti-cancer therapy and used in treating advanced human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a key mediator of the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway, and plays important roles in promoting cancer development, drug resistance and metastasis in human NSCLC and MPM...
December 7, 2018: Biomedicines
Eunchong Huang, Shinwon Kang, Haryung Park, Soyoung Park, Yosep Ji, Wilhelm H Holzapfel
Psychobiotics are probiotic strains that confer mental health benefits to the host through the modulation of the gut microbial population. Mounting evidence shows that the gut microbiota play an important role in communication within the gut⁻brain axis. However, the relationship between the host genetics and the gut microbiota and their influence on anxiety are still not fully understood. Hence, in our research, we attempted to draw a connection between host genetics, microbiota composition, and anxiety by performing an elevated plus maze (EPM) test on four genetically different mice...
December 4, 2018: Biomedicines
Victor M Rivera
Multiple sclerosis (MS) has become a common neurological disorder involving populations previously considered to be infrequently affected. Genetic dissemination from high- to low-risk groups is a determining influence interacting with environmental and epigenetic factors, mostly unidentified. Disease modifying therapies (DMT) are effective in treating relapsing MS in variable degrees; one agent is approved for primary progressive disease, and several are in development. In the era of high-efficacy medications, complex molecules, and monoclonal antibodies (MAB), including anti-VLA4 (natalizumab), anti-CD52 (alemtuzumab), and anti-CD20 (ocrelizumab), obtaining NEDA (no evidence of disease activity) becomes an elusive accomplishment in areas of the world where access to MS therapies and care are generally limited...
November 30, 2018: Biomedicines
Shujuan Du, Xiaoqing Liu, Qiliang Cai
Cellular RNA decay machinery plays a vital role in regulating gene expression by altering the stability of mRNAs in response to external stresses, including viral infection. In the primary infection, viruses often conquer the host cell's antiviral immune response by controlling the inherently cellular mRNA degradation machinery to facilitate viral gene expression and establish a successful infection. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the diverse strategies of viral-mediated regulatory RNA shutoff for pathogenesis, and particularly sheds a light on the mechanisms that viruses evolve to elude immune surveillance during infection...
November 29, 2018: Biomedicines
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