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Serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Aortic Dilation in Tetralogy of Fallot With Pulmonary Stenosis.

Aortic dilation occurs in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), but the rate of growth is incompletely characterized. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of growth of the aortic root and ascending aorta in a cohort of pediatric and adult patients with sequential magnetic resonance angiography Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. Using serial MRI data from pediatric and adult patients with repaired TOF, we performed a retrospective analysis of the rates of growth and associations with growth of the aortic root and ascending aorta. Patients with pulmonary atresia or absent pulmonary valve were excluded. Between years 2005 to 2021, a total of 99 patients were enrolled. A follow-up MRI was performed an average of 5.9 ± 3.7 years from the initial study. For the cohort aged ≥16 years, the mean rate of change in diameter was 0.2 ± 0.5 mm/year at the ascending aorta and 0.2 ± 0.6 mm/year at the sinus of Valsalva. For the entire cohort, the mean change in cross-sectional area indexed to height at the ascending aorta was 7 ± 12 mm2 /m/year and at the sinus of Valsalva was 10 ± 16 mm2 /m/year. Younger age was associated with higher rates of growth of the sinus of Valsalva while the use of β blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors was associated with a slower rate of growth. There were no cases of aortic dissection in this cohort. We conclude that serial MRI demonstrates a slow rate of growth of the aorta in the TOF.

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