Safety, Efficacy, and Patterns of Failure After Single-Fraction Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Oligometastases

Paolo Sogono, Mathias Bressel, Steven David, Mark Shaw, Sarat Chander, Julie Chu, Nikki Plumridge, Keelan Byrne, Nicholas Hardcastle, Tomas Kron, Greg Wheeler, Gerard G Hanna, Michael MacManus, David Ball, Shankar Siva
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2021 March 1, 109 (3): 756-763

PURPOSE: Fewer attendances for radiation therapy results in increased efficiency and less foot traffic within a radiation therapy department. We investigated outcomes after single-fraction (SF) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with oligometastatic disease.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between February 2010 and June 2019, patients who received SF SBRT to 1 to 5 sites of oligometastatic disease were included in this retrospective study. The primary objective was to describe patterns of first failure after SBRT. Secondary objectives included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), high-grade treatment-related toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade ≥3), and freedom from systemic therapy (FFST).

RESULTS: In total, 371 patients with 494 extracranial oligometastases received SF SBRT ranging from 16 Gy to 28 Gy. The most common primary malignancies were prostate (n = 107), lung (n = 63), kidney (n = 52), gastrointestinal (n = 51), and breast cancers (n = 42). The median follow-up was 3.1 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS was 93%, 69%, and 55%, respectively; PFS was 48%, 19%, and 14%, respectively; and FFST was 70%, 43%, and 35%, respectively. Twelve patients (3%) developed grade 3 to 4 treatment-related toxicity, with no grade 5 toxicity. As the first site of failure, the cumulative incidence of local failure (irrespective of other failures) at 1, 3 and 5 years was 4%, 8%, and 8%, respectively; locoregional relapse at the primary was 10%, 18%, and 18%, respectively; and distant failure was 45%, 66%, and 70%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: SF SBRT is safe and effective, and a significant proportion of patients remain FFST for several years after therapy. This approach could be considered in resource-constrained or bundled-payment environments. Locoregional failure of the primary site is the second most common pattern of failure, suggesting a role for optimization of primary control during metastasis-directed therapy.

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