Natural history of 39 patients with Achondroplasia

Jose Ricardo Magliocco Ceroni, Diogo Cordeiro de Queiroz Soares, Larissa de Cássia Testai, Rachel Sayuri Honjo Kawahira, Guilherme Lopes Yamamoto, Sofia Mizuho Miura Sugayama, Luiz Antonio Nunes de Oliveira, Debora Romeo Bertola, Chong Ae Kim
Clinics 2018 July 2, 73: e324

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the natural history of 39 achondroplastic patients diagnosed by clinical, radiological and molecular assessments.

METHODS: Observational and retrospective study of 39 patients who were attended at a public tertiary level hospital between 1995 and 2016.

RESULTS: Diagnosis was made prenatally in 11 patients, at birth in 9 patients and within the first year of life in 13 patients. The most prevalent clinical findings were short stature, high forehead, trident hands, genu varum and macrocephaly. The most prevalent radiographic findings were rhizomelic shortening of the long bones and narrowing of the interpediculate distance of the caudal spine. There was motor developmental delay in 18 patients and speech delay in 16 patients. The most common clinical intercurrences were middle ear dysfunction, sleep apnea, limb pain and obesity from 2 to 9 years of age. One patient was large for the gestational age but did not develop obesity. One patient developed hydrocephalus at 10 years old. The current age of the patients varies from 15 months to 36 years. The molecular study performed by Sanger sequencing of the common heterozygous mutation 1138G>A in FGFR3 was positive in all patients. Four cases were inherited, and 35 were sporadic (paternal age from 19 to 66 years).

CONCLUSIONS: The diagnoses were made early based on clinical and radiographic findings. All cases were confirmed molecularly. Despite presenting a benign course, it is necessary to establish a systematic protocol for the surveillance of these patients due to the common clinical intercurrences.

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