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Case Report: Orbital Tumor Revealing Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Associated with Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type-1

Selim Farès, Rabih Hage, Jean Pegliasco, Samy Chraibi, Harold Merle
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2018, 99 (2): 435-438
29968553
Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) is a sight- and life-threatening complication of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. Ophthalmic manifestations include uveitis, optic nerve oedema, retinal vasculitis, and lymphomatous infiltration. Orbital lesions are rare. We report the case of an orbital tumor revealing systemic ATLL in a 45-year-old Dominican patient who died despite treatment. Apart from late-grade cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, ATLL is the only T-lymphoma to develop in the orbit. Diagnosis is based on serologic evidence of HTLV-1 infection, cytology, and blood sample analysis. Biopsy is deemed necessary. Given the poor prognosis of ATLL and the worldwide presentation of HTLV-1, physicians should consider ATLL in the differential diagnosis of orbital malignant tumor and look for HTLV-1 infection in populations at risk.

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