Therapeutic advantage of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with proteinuric chronic kidney disease

Kiyotsugu Omae, Tetsuya Ogawa, Kosaku Nitta
Heart and Vessels 2010, 25 (3): 203-8
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) is recommended for the treatment of hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The relation of ACEI to renal prognosis was investigated in CKD patients in a retrospective cohort study. The objectives were patients with nondiabetic CKD of stage 4 or below receiving monotherapy with calcium channel blocker (CCB), ACEI, or ARB, and combination therapy. For the endpoint of progression to CKD stage 5, Cox's proportional hazards analysis was conducted with explanatory variables of age, sex, baseline estimated GFR (eGFR), and proteinuria (UP) at the start of the observation period, and final blood pressure (BP) and UP at completion of the observation period. Analyzed patients comprised 131 males and 117 females, with mean age of 47.8 years. Patients were observed for 44.2 months, and the parameters of final SBP, DBP, eGFR, and UP were 127.6 +/- 6.9 mmHg, 77.8 +/- 5.8 mmHg, 38.1 +/- 10.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and 1.08 +/- 0.57 g/gCr, respectively, where 42 patients progressed to CKD stage 5. Drugs of CCB, ACEI, and ARB types were administered to 93, 85, and 127 patients, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, extracted common prognostic factors included the baseline eGFR and final UP, the odds ratio of which was 0.876 (every increase by 1 ml/min of eGFR) and 2.229 (every increase by 1 g of UP), respectively. Among drugs in use, ACEI was an independent prognostic factor, whose odds ratio was 0.147. The present study suggests that ACEI is a prognostic factor independent of hypotensive action and UP in CKD patients.

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