Glutamine and alanyl-glutamine dipeptide reduce mesenteric plasma extravasation, leukocyte adhesion and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release during experimental endotoxemia

R Scheibe, M Schade, M Grundling, D Pavlovic, K Starke, M Wendt, S Retter, M Murphy, U Suchner, A Spassov, T Gedrange, Ch Lehmann
Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society 2009, 60 Suppl 8: 19-24
Glutamine (GLN) appears to be an essential nutrient during organism development and critical illness. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of GLN and its generic preparation alanyl-glutamine-dipeptide (DIP) on the microcirculation in endotoxemia in rats and its effects on tonus or aortal rings in vitro. Male Lewis rats (n=40) were separated in 4 groups. Group 1 (CON) served as healthy control group while the other groups received an endotoxin bolus i.v. (5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide, LPS i.v.). In group 3 (LPS+GLN) 0.75 g/kg-1 GLN i.v. before LPS challenge was administered. In group 4 (LPS+DIP) DIP containing 0.75 g/kg GLN was given. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions and mesenteric plasma extravasation were determined at 0, 1 and 2 hours during the experiment by intravital fluorescence microscopy (IVM). Cytokine release (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10) was measured by ELISA. GLN treatment reduced leukocyte adherence (-49.7% vs. LPS group, p<0.05) and plasma extravasation (-12.3% vs. LPS group, p<0.05) significantly during endotoxemia compared to untreated LPS animals. In group 4 (DIP+LPS), a decrease of leukocyte adherence (-56.0%) and mesenteric plasma extravasation (-18.8% vs. LPS group, p<0.05) was also found. TNF-alpha levels were reduced in both GLN and DIP (p<0.05). In vitro experiments demonstrated that glutamine agents could attenuate the response to contracting agents in presence of the vascular endothelium, implying nitric oxide pathway. In vivo, GLN as well as DIP pre-treatment diminish the detrimental impact of endotoxemia on the mesenteric microcirculation and the TNF-alpha release, the effects whose clinical importance should be further examined.

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