Active chest compression-decompression for cardiopulmonary resuscitation

C Lafuente-Lafuente, M Melero-Bascones
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, (3): CD002751

BACKGROUND: Active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ACD CPR) uses a hand-held suction device, applied mid sternum, to compress the chest then actively decompress the chest after each compression. Randomised controlled trials on use of active compression decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation have results which are discordant.

OBJECTIVES: To determine clinical effects and safety of active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation compared with standard manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (STR).

SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Heart Group Specialised register (April 2001), the Cochrane library, MEDLINE and EMBASE. We checked the reference list of retrieved articles and contacted enterprises manufacturing the active decompression devices.

SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomized or quasi-randomized studies comparing active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation compared with standard manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults with a cardiac arrest who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation by a trained medical or paramedical team.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were independently extracted. All data were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The authors of the primary studies were contacted for more information when needed. Studies were cumulated, if appropriate, and pooled relative risk (RR) estimated. Subgroup analysis according to setting (out of hospital or in hospital) and attending team composition (with physician or paramedic only) were predefined.

MAIN RESULTS: Twelve trials were included: 10 were in out-of-hospital settings, one set in-hospital only and one had both in-hospital and out-of-hospital components. Allocation concealment was adequate in 4 trials. The two in-hospital studies were very different in quality (A and C) and size (773 and 53 patients). Both found no differences between ACD CPR and STR in any outcome. Trials conducted in out-of-hospital settings cumulated 4162 patients. There were no differences between ACD CPR and STR for mortality either immediately (RR 0.98 [95% CI 0.94 - 1.03]) or at hospital discharge (RR 0.99 [95% CI 0.98 - 1.01]). The pooled RR of neurological impairment, any severity, was 1.71 [95% CI 0.90 - 3.25], with a non-significant trend to more frequent severe neurological damage in survivors of ACD CPR (RR 3.11 [95% CI 0.98 - 9.83]). However, assessment of neurological outcome was limited and there were few patients with neurological damage. There was no difference between ACD CPR and STR with regard complications such as rib or sternal fractures, pneumothorax or hemothorax (RR 1.09 [95% CI 0.86 - 1.38]). Skin trauma and ecchymosis were more frequent with ACD CPR.

REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: Active chest compression-decompression in patients with cardiac arrest is not associated with clear benefit.

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