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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759311/aquablation-of-the-prostate-for-the-treatment-of-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-in-men-with-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#1
REVIEW
Eu Chang Hwang, Jae Hung Jung, Michael Borofsky, Myung Ha Kim, Philipp Dahm
BACKGROUND: New, minimally invasive surgeries have emerged as alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Aquablation is a novel, minimally invasive, water-based therapy, combining image guidance and robotics for the removal of prostatic tissue. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of Aquablation for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia...
February 13, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758840/desmopressin-acetate-ddavp-for-preventing-and-treating-acute-bleeds-during-pregnancy-in-women-with-congenital-bleeding-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Laxminarayan Karanth, Ankur Barua, Sachchithanantham Kanagasabai, N Sreekumaran Nair
BACKGROUND: Congenital bleeding disorders can cause obstetric haemorrhage during pregnancy, labour and following delivery. Desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) is found to be an effective drug which can reduce the risk of haemorrhage and can also stop bleeding in certain congenital bleeding disorders. Its use in pregnancy has been controversial. Hence beneficial and adverse effects of DDAVP in these groups of pregnant women should be evaluated.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2013 and updated in 2015...
February 13, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758052/calcium-antagonists-for-acute-ischemic-stroke
#3
REVIEW
Jing Zhang, Jia Liu, Dan Li, Canfei Zhang, Ming Liu
BACKGROUND: The sudden loss of blood supply in ischemic stroke is associated with an increase of calcium ions within neurons. Inhibiting this increase could protect neurons and might reduce neurological impairment, disability, and handicap after stroke. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of calcium antagonists for reducing the risk of death or dependency after acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the influence of different drugs, dosages, routes of administration, time intervals after stroke, and trial design on the outcomes...
February 13, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758045/relapse-prevention-interventions-for-smoking-cessation
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, Emma Norris, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Robert West, Martin Jarvis, Peter Hajek
BACKGROUND: A number of treatments can help smokers make a successful quit attempt, but many initially successful quitters relapse over time. Several interventions have been proposed to help prevent relapse. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether specific interventions for relapse prevention reduce the proportion of recent quitters who return to smoking. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register, clinicaltrials...
February 13, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30754073/active-versus-expectant-management-for-women-in-the-third-stage-of-labour
#5
REVIEW
Cecily M Begley, Gillian Ml Gyte, Declan Devane, William McGuire, Andrew Weeks, Linda M Biesty
BACKGROUND: Active management of the third stage of labour involves giving a prophylactic uterotonic, early cord clamping and controlled cord traction to deliver the placenta. With expectant management, signs of placental separation are awaited and the placenta is delivered spontaneously. Active management was introduced to try to reduce haemorrhage, a major contributor to maternal mortality in low-income countries. This is an update of a review last published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of active versus expectant management of the third stage of labour on severe primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and other maternal and infant outcomes...
February 13, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746700/iodine-fortification-of-foods-and-condiments-other-than-salt-for-preventing-iodine-deficiency-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Joseph Alvin R Santos, Anthea Christoforou, Kathy Trieu, Briar L McKenzie, Shauna Downs, Laurent Billot, Jacqui Webster, Mu Li
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) affect close to 1.9 billion people worldwide, and are a major public health concern in many countries. Among children, iodine deficiency is the main cause of potentially preventable deficits of central nervous system development and impairment of cognitive function, as well as goitre and hypothyroidism in people of all ages. Salt iodisation is the preferred strategy for IDD prevention and control, however, in some instances where salt is not the major condiment, alternate vehicles for iodine fortification have been considered...
February 12, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746689/nerve-sparing-radical-hysterectomy-compared-to-standard-radical-hysterectomy-for-women-with-early-stage-cervical-cancer-stage-ia2-to-iia
#7
REVIEW
Chumnan Kietpeerakool, Apiwat Aue-Aungkul, Khadra Galaal, Chetta Ngamjarus, Pisake Lumbiganon
BACKGROUND: Radical hysterectomy is one of the standard treatments for stage Ia2 to IIa cervical cancer. Bladder dysfunction caused by disruption of the pelvic autonomic nerves is a common complication following standard radical hysterectomy and can affect quality of life significantly. Nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy is a modified radical hysterectomy, developed to permit resection of oncologically relevant tissues surrounding the cervical lesion, while preserving the pelvic autonomic nerves...
February 12, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746681/n-acetylcysteine-as-an-adjuvant-therapy-for-helicobacter-pylori-eradication
#8
REVIEW
Luís Eduardo S Fontes, Ana Luiza C Martimbianco, Carolina Zanin, Rachel Riera
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is one of the most common pathogens to establish and cause infection in human beings, affecting about 50% of the world's population. Prevalence may be as high as 83% in Latin American countries and as low as 17% in North America. Approximately 20% of infected people will manifest disease; people at high risk include those who live in low- and middle-income countries with poor sanitary conditions, since the mechanism of transmission seems to be oral-oral or faecal-oral (mostly during infancy)...
February 12, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746679/exercise-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-for-adult-patients-with-an-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator
#9
REVIEW
Kim M Nielsen, Ann-Dorthe Zwisler, Rod S Taylor, Jesper H Svendsen, Jane Lindschou, Lindsey Anderson, Janus C Jakobsen, Selina K Berg
BACKGROUND: An effective way of preventing sudden cardiac death is the use of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). In spite of the potential mortality benefits of receiving an ICD device, psychological problems experienced by patients after receiving an ICD may negatively impact their health-related quality of life, and lead to increased readmission to hospital and healthcare needs, loss of productivity and employment earnings, and increased morbidity and mortality. Evidence from other heart conditions suggests that cardiac rehabilitation should consist of both exercise training and psychoeducational interventions; such rehabilitation may benefit patients with an ICD...
February 12, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742315/combined-hormonal-contraceptives-for-heavy-menstrual-bleeding
#10
REVIEW
Anne Lethaby, Michelle R Wise, Maria Aj Weterings, Magdalena Bofill Rodriguez, Julie Brown
BACKGROUND: Menorrhagia or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is an excessive blood loss that impairs a woman's quality of life, either physical, emotional, social or material. It is benign and not associated with pregnancy or any other gynaecological or systemic disease. Medical treatments used to reduce excessive menstrual blood loss (MBL) include prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, antifibrinolytics, oral contraceptive pills, and other hormones. The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) is claimed to have a variety of beneficial effects, inducing a regular shedding of a thinner endometrium and inhibiting ovulation, thus having the effect of both treating HMB and providing contraception...
February 11, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741408/exercise-training-for-advanced-lung-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Carolyn J Peddle-McIntyre, Favil Singh, Rajesh Thomas, Robert U Newton, Daniel A Galvão, Vinicius Cavalheri
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced lung cancer have a high symptom burden, which is often complicated by coexisting conditions. These issues, combined with the indirect effects of cancer treatment, can cumulatively lead patients to continued deconditioning and low exercise capacity. This is a concern as exercise capacity is considered a measure of whole body health, and is critical in a patient's ability to participate in life activities and tolerate difficult treatments. There is evidence that exercise training improves exercise capacity and other outcomes, such as muscle force and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), in cancer survivors...
February 11, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30736095/dietary-interventions-for-induction-and-maintenance-of-remission-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
REVIEW
Berkeley N Limketkai, Zipporah Iheozor-Ejiofor, Teuta Gjuladin-Hellon, Alyssa Parian, Laura E Matarese, Kelly Bracewell, John K MacDonald, Morris Gordon, Gerard E Mullin
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprised of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation, frequent hospitalizations, adverse health economics, and compromised quality of life. Diet has been hypothesised to influence IBD activity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dietary interventions on IBD outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Clinicaltrials...
February 8, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734919/ethosuximide-sodium-valproate-or-lamotrigine-for-absence-seizures-in-children-and-adolescents
#13
REVIEW
Francesco Brigo, Stanley C Igwe, Simona Lattanzi
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review previously published in 2017.Absence seizures (AS) are brief epileptic seizures which present in childhood and adolescence. Depending on clinical features and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings they are divided into typical, atypical absences, and absences with special features. Typical absences are characterised by sudden loss of awareness and an EEG typically shows generalised spike wave discharges at three cycles per second...
February 8, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30731030/antibiotics-for-induction-and-maintenance-of-remission-in-crohn-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Cassandra M Townsend, Claire E Parker, John K MacDonald, Tran M Nguyen, Vipul Jairath, Brian G Feagan, Reena Khanna
BACKGROUND: Several antibiotics have been evaluated in Crohn's disease (CD), however randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have produced conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of antibiotics for induction and maintenance of remission in CD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register and Clinicaltrials.gov database from inception to 28 February 2018. We also searched reference lists and conference proceedings...
February 7, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30731019/withdrawn-ozone-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-dental-caries
#15
REVIEW
George David Rickard, Robin J Richardson, Trevor M Johnson, David C McColl, Lee Hooper
BACKGROUND: Dental caries is a bacterially mediated disease characterised by demineralisation of the tooth surface, which may lead to cavitation, discomfort, pain and eventual tooth loss. Ozone is toxic to certain bacteria in vitro and it has been suggested that delivering ozone into a carious lesion might reduce the number of cariogenic bacteria. This possibly could arrest the progress of the lesion and may, in the presence of fluoride, perhaps allow remineralisation to occur. This may in turn delay or prevent the need for traditional dental conservation by 'drilling and filling'...
February 7, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30730577/withdrawn-hand-and-ultrasonic-instrumentation-for-orthograde-root-canal-treatment-of-permanent-teeth
#16
REVIEW
Vinicius Pedrazzi, Jeronimo M Oliveira-Neto, Patrick Sequeira-Byron, Zbys Fedorowicz, Mona Nasser
BACKGROUND: Endodontic treatment of root canals or root canal treatment is a frequently performed dental procedure and is carried out on teeth in which irreversible pulpitis has led to necrosis (death) of the dental pulp (nerve). Removal of the necrotic tissue remnants and cleaning and shaping of the root canal are important phases of root canal treatment. Treatment options include the use of hand and rotary instruments and methods using ultrasonic or sonic equipment. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review were to determine the relative clinical effectiveness of hand instrumentation versus ultrasonic instrumentation alone or in conjunction with hand instrumentation for orthograde root canal treatment of permanent teeth...
February 7, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30726554/ureteral-stent-versus-no-ureteral-stent-for-ureteroscopy-in-the-management-of-renal-and-ureteral-calculi
#17
REVIEW
Maria Ordonez, Eu Chang Hwang, Michael Borofsky, Caitlin J Bakker, Shreyas Gandhi, Philipp Dahm
BACKGROUND: Ureteroscopy combined with laser stone fragmentation and basketing is a common approach for managing renal and ureteral stones. This procedure is associated with some degree of ureteral trauma. Ureteral trauma may lead to swelling, ureteral obstruction, and flank pain and may require subsequent interventions such as hospital admission or secondary ureteral stent placement. To prevent such issues, urologists often place temporary ureteral stents prophylactically, but the value of doing so remains unclear...
February 6, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723895/thoracic-endovascular-repair-tevar-versus-open-surgery-for-blunt-traumatic-thoracic-aortic-injury
#18
REVIEW
Dominic Pang, Diane Hildebrand, Paul Bachoo
BACKGROUND: Blunt traumatic thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) is a life-threatening surgical emergency associated with mortality up to 8000 per year, most commonly caused by rapid acceleration/deceleration injury sustained through motor vehicle accident and/or blunt thoracic trauma. BTAI has high pre-hospital mortality following the primary injury, with only 10% to 15% of patients surviving long enough to reach the hospital. Open surgical repair had remained the standard treatment option for BTAI since successfully introduced in 1959...
February 6, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30720860/interventions-for-treating-traumatised-permanent-front-teeth-avulsed-knocked-out-and-replanted
#19
REVIEW
Peter F Day, Monty Duggal, Hani Nazzal
BACKGROUND: Traumatic dental injuries are common. One of the most severe injuries is when a permanent tooth is knocked completely out of the mouth (avulsed). In most circumstances the tooth should be replanted as quickly as possible. There is uncertainty on which interventions will maximise the survival and repair of the replanted tooth. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of a range of interventions for managing traumatised permanent front teeth with avulsion injuries...
February 5, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707441/needle-aspiration-versus-intercostal-tube-drainage-for-pneumothorax-in-the-newborn
#20
REVIEW
Matteo Bruschettini, Olga Romantsik, Simona Zappettini, Colm Pf O'Donnell, Maria Grazia Calevo
BACKGROUND: Pneumothorax occurs more frequently in the neonatal period than at any other time of life and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. It can be treated with either aspiration with a syringe (using a needle or an angiocatheter) or a chest tube inserted in the anterior pleural space and then connected to a Heimlich valve or an underwater seal with continuous suction. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of needle aspiration (either with immediate removal of the needle or with the needle left in situ) to intercostal tube drainage in the management of neonatal pneumothorax (PTX)...
February 1, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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