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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

https://read.qxmd.com/read/38757544/hearing-protection-field-attenuation-estimation-systems-and-associated-training-for-reducing-workers-exposure-to-noise
#1
REVIEW
Thais C Morata, Wei Gong, Christina Tikka, Alessandra G Samelli, Jos H Verbeek
BACKGROUND: Global Burden of Disease studies identify hearing loss as the third leading cause of years lived with a disability. Their estimates point to large societal and individual costs from unaddressed hearing difficulties. Workplace noise is an important modifiable risk factor; if addressed, it could significantly reduce the global burden of disease. In practice, providing hearing protection devices (HPDs) is the most common intervention to reduce noise exposure at work. However, lack of fit of HPDs, especially earplugs, can greatly limit their effectiveness...
May 17, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38753314/interventions-with-pregnant-women-new-mothers-and-other-primary-caregivers-for-preventing-early-childhood-caries
#2
REVIEW
Judith C Gomersall, Linda Slack-Smith, Nicky Kilpatrick, M S Muthu, Elisha Riggs
BACKGROUND: Dental caries, a common chronic disease of childhood, is associated with adverse health and economic consequences for infants and their families. Socioeconomically disadvantaged children have a higher risk of early childhood caries (ECC). This review updates one published in 2019. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions undertaken with pregnant women, new mothers or other primary caregivers of infants in the first year of life, for preventing ECC (from birth to six years)...
May 16, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38738639/oral-vitamin-a-supplements-to-prevent-acute-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-up-to-seven-years-of-age
#3
REVIEW
Xiao Cheng, Dan Li, Chunsong Yang, Bin Chen, Ping Xu, Lingli Zhang
BACKGROUND: According to global prevalence analysis studies, acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are the most common acute infectious disease in children, especially in preschool children. Acute URTIs lead to an economic burden on families and society. Vitamin A refers to the fat-soluble compound all-trans-retinol and also represents retinol and its active metabolites. Vitamin A interacts with both the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system and improves the host's defences against infections...
May 13, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38726892/shared-decision-making-for-supporting-women-s-decisions-about-breast-cancer-screening
#4
REVIEW
Paula Riganti, M Victoria Ruiz Yanzi, Camila Micaela Escobar Liquitay, Nadia J Sgarbossa, Christoper A Alarcon-Ruiz, Karin S Kopitowski, Juan Va Franco
BACKGROUND: In breast cancer screening programmes, women may have discussions with a healthcare provider to help them decide whether or not they wish to join the breast cancer screening programme. This process is called shared decision-making (SDM) and involves discussions and decisions based on the evidence and the person's values and preferences. SDM is becoming a recommended approach in clinical guidelines, extending beyond decision aids. However, the overall effect of SDM in women deciding to participate in breast cancer screening remains uncertain...
May 10, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38726883/magnesium-sulphate-for-women-at-risk-of-preterm-birth-for-neuroprotection-of-the-fetus
#5
REVIEW
Emily S Shepherd, Shona Goldsmith, Lex W Doyle, Philippa Middleton, Stéphane Marret, Dwight J Rouse, Peter Pryde, Hanne T Wolf, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Magnesium sulphate is a common therapy in perinatal care. Its benefits when given to women at risk of preterm birth for fetal neuroprotection (prevention of cerebral palsy for children) were shown in a 2009 Cochrane review. Internationally, use of magnesium sulphate for preterm cerebral palsy prevention is now recommended practice. As new randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and longer-term follow-up of prior RCTs have since been conducted, this review updates the previously published version...
May 10, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38721883/exposure-to-the-smell-and-taste-of-milk-to-accelerate-feeding-in-preterm-infants
#6
REVIEW
Lilia Delgado Paramo, Anja Bronnert, Luling Lin, Frank H Bloomfield, Mariana Muelbert, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants (born before 37 weeks' gestation) are often unable to co-ordinate sucking, swallowing, and breathing for oral feeding because of their immaturity. In such cases, initial nutrition is provided by orogastric or nasogastric tube feeding. Feeding intolerance is common and can delay attainment of full enteral and sucking feeds, prolonging the need for nutritional support and the hospital stay. Smell and taste play an important role in the activation of physiological pre-absorptive processes that contribute to food digestion and absorption...
May 9, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38721875/robotic-versus-laparoscopic-versus-open-nephrectomy-for-live-kidney-donors
#7
REVIEW
Georgios Kourounis, Samuel J Tingle, Thomas J Hoather, Emily R Thompson, Alistair Rogers, Tobias Page, Aliu Sanni, David A Rix, Naeem A Soomro, Colin Wilson
BACKGROUND: Waiting lists for kidney transplantation continue to grow. Live kidney donation significantly reduces waiting times and improves long-term outcomes for recipients. Major disincentives to potential kidney donors are the pain and morbidity associated with surgery. This is an update of a review published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of open donor nephrectomy (ODN), laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN), hand-assisted LDN (HALDN) and robotic donor nephrectomy (RDN) as appropriate surgical techniques for live kidney donors...
May 9, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38721874/diagnostic-accuracy-of-ultrasound-screening-for-fetal-structural-abnormalities-during-the-first-and-second-trimester-of-pregnancy-in-low-risk-and-unselected-populations
#8
REVIEW
Marieke Fj Buijtendijk, Bo B Bet, Mariska Mg Leeflang, Harsha Shah, Tom Reuvekamp, Timothy Goring, Daniel Docter, Melanie Gmm Timmerman, Yousif Dawood, Malou A Lugthart, Bente Berends, Jacqueline Limpens, Eva Pajkrt, Maurice Jb van den Hoff, Bernadette S de Bakker
BACKGROUND: Prenatal ultrasound is widely used to screen for structural anomalies before birth. While this is traditionally done in the second trimester, there is an increasing use of first-trimester ultrasound for early detection of lethal and certain severe structural anomalies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in detecting fetal structural anomalies before 14 and 24 weeks' gestation in low-risk and unselected pregnant women and to compare the current two main prenatal screening approaches: a single second-trimester scan (single-stage screening) and a first- and second-trimester scan combined (two-stage screening) in terms of anomaly detection before 24 weeks' gestation...
May 9, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38721870/calcium-supplementation-for-people-with-overweight-or-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Gabriela Cormick, Agustín Ciapponi, Janetta Harbron, Surya M Perez, Paula Vazquez, Julie Rivo, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Fernando Althabe, José M Belizán
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem worldwide as it can lead to high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and insulin resistance. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide across different age groups. There is evidence of an inverse relationship between calcium intake and body weight. The clinical relevance of a small reduction in body weight has been questioned. However, at a population level, a small effect could mitigate the observed global trends...
May 9, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38719213/zinc-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-the-common-cold
#10
REVIEW
Daryl Nault, Taryn A Machingo, Andrea G Shipper, Daniel A Antiporta, Candyce Hamel, Sahar Nourouzpour, Menelaos Konstantinidis, Erica Phillips, Elizabeth A Lipski, L Susan Wieland
BACKGROUND: The common cold is an acute, self-limiting viral respiratory illness. Symptoms include nasal congestion and mucus discharge, sneezing, sore throat, cough, and general malaise. Given the frequency of colds, they are a public health burden and a significant cause of lost work productivity and school absenteeism. There are no established interventions to prevent colds or shorten their duration. However, zinc supplements are commonly recommended and taken for this purpose. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of zinc for the prevention and treatment of the common cold...
May 9, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38712723/debridement-for-surgical-wounds
#11
REVIEW
Fiona Smith, Jayne Donaldson, Tamara Brown
BACKGROUND: Surgical wounds that become infected are often debrided because clinicians believe that removal of this necrotic or infected tissue may expedite wound healing. There are numerous methods of debridement available, but no consensus on which one is most effective for surgical wounds. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different methods of debridement on the rate of debridement and healing of surgical wounds. SEARCH METHODS: In October 2021, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL...
May 7, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38712714/systemic-antibiotics-for-symptomatic-apical-periodontitis-and-acute-apical-abscess-in-adults
#12
REVIEW
Anwen L Cope, Nick Francis, Fiona Wood, Wendy Thompson, Ivor G Chestnutt
BACKGROUND: Dental pain can have a detrimental effect on quality of life. Symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess are common causes of dental pain and arise from an inflamed or necrotic dental pulp, or infection of the pulpless root canal system. Clinical guidelines recommend that the first-line treatment for these conditions should be removal of the source of inflammation or infection by local operative measures, and that systemic antibiotics are currently only recommended for situations where there is evidence of spreading infection (cellulitis, lymph node involvement, diffuse swelling) or systemic involvement (fever, malaise)...
May 7, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38712709/collaborative-care-approaches-for-people-with-severe-mental-illness
#13
REVIEW
Siobhan Reilly, Charley Hobson-Merrett, Bliss Gibbons, Ben Jones, Debra Richards, Humera Plappert, John Gibson, Maria Green, Linda Gask, Peter J Huxley, Benjamin G Druss, Claire L Planner
BACKGROUND: Collaborative care for severe mental illness (SMI) is a community-based intervention that promotes interdisciplinary working across primary and secondary care. Collaborative care interventions aim to improve the physical and/or mental health care of individuals with SMI. This is an update of a 2013 Cochrane review, based on new searches of the literature, which includes an additional seven studies. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of collaborative care approaches in comparison with standard care (or other non-collaborative care interventions) for people with diagnoses of SMI who are living in the community...
May 7, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38700045/antiviral-medications-for-preventing-cytomegalovirus-disease-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#14
REVIEW
Robin Wm Vernooij, Mini Michael, Maleeka Ladhani, Angela C Webster, Giovanni Fm Strippoli, Jonathan C Craig, Elisabeth M Hodson
BACKGROUND: The risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in solid organ transplant recipients has resulted in the frequent use of prophylaxis to prevent the clinical syndrome associated with CMV infection. This is an update of a review first published in 2005 and updated in 2008 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of antiviral medications to prevent CMV disease and all-cause death in solid organ transplant recipients. SEARCH METHODS: We contacted the information specialist and searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 5 February 2024 using search terms relevant to this review...
May 3, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38700027/bronchoscopy-guided-antimicrobial-therapy-for-cystic-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Kamini Jain, Claire E Wainwright, Alan R Smyth
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and treatment of lower respiratory tract infections is the mainstay of management of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). When sputum samples are unavailable, diagnosis relies mainly on cultures from oropharyngeal specimens; however, there are concerns about whether this approach is sensitive enough to identify lower respiratory organisms. Bronchoscopy and related procedures such as bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) are invasive but allow the collection of lower respiratory specimens from non-sputum producers...
May 3, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38695830/early-versus-delayed-appendicectomy-for-appendiceal-phlegmon-or-abscess
#16
REVIEW
Shiyi Zhou, Yao Cheng, Nansheng Cheng, Jianping Gong, Bing Tu
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2017. Acute appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) can be simple or complicated. Appendiceal phlegmon and appendiceal abscess are examples of complicated appendicitis. Appendiceal phlegmon is a diffuse inflammation in the bottom right of the appendix, while appendiceal abscess is a discrete inflamed mass in the abdomen that contains pus. Appendiceal phlegmon and abscess account for 2% to 10% of acute appendicitis...
May 2, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38695827/metformin-for-endometrial-hyperplasia
#17
REVIEW
Hunain Shiwani, Naomi S Clement, Jane P Daniels, William Atiomo
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is one of the most common gynaecological cancers in the world. Rates of endometrial cancer are rising, in part because of rising obesity rates. Endometrial hyperplasia is a precancerous condition in women that can lead to endometrial cancer if left untreated. Endometrial hyperplasia occurs more commonly than endometrial cancer. Progesterone tablets that are currently used to treat women with endometrial hyperplasia are associated with adverse effects in up to 84% of women...
May 2, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38695826/measures-implemented-in-the-school-setting-to-contain-the-covid-19-pandemic
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Hannah Littlecott, Shari Krishnaratne, Jacob Burns, Eva Rehfuess, Kerstin Sell, Carmen Klinger, Brigitte Strahwald, Ani Movsisyan, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Petra Schoenweger, Stephan Voss, Michaela Coenen, Roxana Müller-Eberstein, Lisa M Pfadenhauer
BACKGROUND: More than 767 million coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) cases and 6.9 million deaths with COVID-19 have been recorded as of August 2023. Several public health and social measures were implemented in schools to contain the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and prevent onward transmission. We built upon methods from a previous Cochrane review to capture current empirical evidence relating to the effectiveness of school measures to limit SARS-CoV-2 transmission...
May 2, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38695785/effects-of-additional-exercise-therapy-after-a-successful-vascular-intervention-for-people-with-symptomatic-peripheral-arterial-disease
#19
REVIEW
Gabriel Cucato, Paulo Pl Longano, Daniel Perren, Raphael M Ritti-Dias, John M Saxton
BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterised by obstruction or narrowing of the large arteries of the lower limbs, usually caused by atheromatous plaques. Most people with PAD who experience intermittent leg pain (intermittent claudication) are typically treated with secondary prevention strategies, including medical management and exercise therapy. Lower limb revascularisation may be suitable for people with significant disability and those who do not show satisfactory improvement after conservative treatment...
May 2, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38695784/respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccination-during-pregnancy-for-improving-infant-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
Emily Wem Phijffer, Odette de Bruin, Fariba Ahmadizar, Louis J Bont, Nicoline At Van der Maas, Miriam Cjm Sturkenboom, Joanne G Wildenbeest, Kitty Wm Bloemenkamp
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants. Maternal RSV vaccination is a preventive strategy of great interest, as it could have a substantial impact on infant RSV disease burden. In recent years, the clinical development of maternal RSV vaccines has advanced rapidly. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of maternal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination for preventing RSV disease in infants...
May 2, 2024: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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