Journals Cochrane Database of Systemati...

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sara Pessano, Olga Romantsik, Emma Olsson, Ehsan Hedayati, Matteo Bruschettini
BACKGROUND: Lumbar puncture (LP) is a common invasive procedure, most frequently performed to diagnose infection. Physicians perform LP in newborn infants with the help of an assistant using a strict aseptic technique; it is important to monitor the infant during all the steps of the procedure. Without adequate analgesia, LP can cause considerable pain and discomfort. As newborns have increased sensitivity to pain, it is crucial to adequately manage the procedural pain of LP in this population...
September 28, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sesh Kamal Sunkara, Mohan S Kamath, Zabeena Pandian, Ahmed Gibreel, Siladitya Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a treatment for unexplained subfertility but is invasive, expensive, and associated with risks. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of IVF versus expectant management, unstimulated intrauterine insemination (IUI), and IUI with ovarian stimulation using gonadotropins, clomiphene citrate (CC), or letrozole in improving pregnancy outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched following databases from inception to November 2021, with no language restriction: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL...
September 27, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Neil C Williams, Jacob Jayaratnasingam, Andrew P Prayle, Sarah J Nevitt, Alan R Smyth
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disease; the importance of growth and nutritional status is well established given their implications for lung function and overall survivability. Furthermore, it has been established that intestinal microbial imbalance and inflammation are present in people with CF. Oral prebiotics are commercially available substrates that are selectively utilised by host intestinal micro-organisms and may improve both intestinal and overall health. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of prebiotics for improving health outcomes in children and adults with CF...
September 27, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Katie E Webster, Caroline A Mulvaney, Kevin Galbraith, Mridul Rana, Tal Marom, Mat Daniel, Roderick P Venekamp, Anne Gm Schilder, Samuel MacKeith
BACKGROUND: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is an accumulation of fluid in the middle ear cavity, common amongst young children. The fluid may cause hearing loss. When persistent, it may lead to behavioural problems and a delay in expressive language skills. Management of OME includes watchful waiting, medical, surgical and mechanical treatment. Autoinflation is a self-administered technique, which aims to ventilate the middle ear and encourage middle ear fluid clearance by providing a positive pressure of air in the nose and nasopharynx (using a nasal balloon or other handheld device)...
September 26, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Aidan Burrell, Jiwon Kim, Patricia Alliegro, Lorena Romero, Ary Serpa Neto, Frederick Mariajoseph, Carol Hodgson
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may provide benefit in certain populations of adults, including those with severe cardiac failure, severe respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. However, it is also associated with serious short- and long-term complications, and there remains a lack of high-quality evidence to guide practice. Recently several large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been published, therefore, we undertook an update of our previous systematic review published in 2014...
September 26, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kristina Haworth, Darian Travis, Louis Leslie, Daniel Fuller, Andrew D Pucker
BACKGROUND: Ocular discomfort is the leading cause of permanent discontinuation of soft contact lens (SCL) wear. Silicone hydrogel and hydrogel materials are the two major categories of SCLs, with silicone hydrogel materials being newer and more breathable than hydrogel materials. Whether comfort is associated with SCL material is controversial despite numerous studies. Similarly, the difference between these materials in terms of safety outcomes (e.g. frequency of microbial keratitis) is unclear...
September 19, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Stephen P Adams, Nima Alaeiilkhchi, Sara Tasnim, James M Wright
BACKGROUND: A detailed summary and meta-analysis of the dose-related effect of pravastatin on lipids is not available. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective To assess the pharmacology of pravastatin by characterizing the dose-related effect and variability of the effect of pravastatin on the surrogate marker: low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol). The effect of pravastatin on morbidity and mortality is not the objective of this systematic review. Secondary objectives • To assess the dose-related effect and variability of effect of pravastatin on the following surrogate markers: total cholesterol; high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol); and triglycerides...
September 18, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Tatjana Gibbons, Jane Reavey, Ektoras X Georgiou, Christian M Becker
BACKGROUND: Many factors influence fertility, one being the timing of intercourse. The 'fertile window' describes a stage in the cycle when conception can occur and is approximately five days before to several hours after ovulation. 'Timed intercourse' is the practice of prospectively identifying ovulation and, thus, the fertile window to increase the likelihood of conception. Methods of predicting ovulation include urinary hormone measurement (luteinising hormone (LH) and oestrogen), fertility awareness-based methods (FABM) (including tracking basal body temperatures, cervical mucus monitoring, calendar charting/tracking apps), and ultrasonography...
September 15, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ashwin Aggarwal, Sam Adie, Ian A Harris, Justine Naylor
BACKGROUND: Total knee replacement (TKR) is a common intervention for people with end-stage symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, resulting in significant improvements in pain, function and quality of life within three to six months. It is, however, acutely associated with pain, local oedema and blood loss. Post-operative management may include cryotherapy. This is the application of low temperatures to the skin surrounding the surgical site, through ice or cooled water, often delivered using specialised devices...
September 14, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jennifer R Evans, John G Lawrenson
BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative condition of the back of the eye that occurs in people over the age of 50 years. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage in the retina by reacting with free radicals that are produced in the process of light absorption. Higher dietary levels of antioxidant vitamins and minerals may reduce the risk of progression of AMD. This is the third update of the review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements on the progression of AMD in people with AMD...
September 13, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Thomas L Klitgaard, Olav L Schjørring, Frederik M Nielsen, Christian S Meyhoff, Anders Perner, Jørn Wetterslev, Bodil S Rasmussen, Marija Barbateskovic
BACKGROUND: This is an updated review concerning 'Higher versus lower fractions of inspired oxygen or targets of arterial oxygenation for adults admitted to the intensive care unit'. Supplementary oxygen is provided to most patients in intensive care units (ICUs) to prevent global and organ hypoxia (inadequate oxygen levels). Oxygen has been administered liberally, resulting in high proportions of patients with hyperoxemia (exposure of tissues to abnormally high concentrations of oxygen)...
September 13, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Samuel J Tingle, Joseph J Dobbins, Emily R Thompson, Rodrigo S Figueiredo, Balaji Mahendran, Sanjay Pandanaboyana, Colin Wilson
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is the only chance of cure for people with end-stage liver disease and some people with advanced liver cancers or acute liver failure. The increasing prevalence of these conditions drives demand and necessitates the increasing use of donated livers which have traditionally been considered suboptimal. Several novel machine perfusion preservation technologies have been developed, which attempt to ameliorate some of the deleterious effects of ischaemia reperfusion injury...
September 12, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nicola Lindson, Annika Theodoulou, José M Ordóñez-Mena, Thomas R Fanshawe, Alex J Sutton, Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, Anisa Hajizadeh, Sufen Zhu, Paul Aveyard, Suzanne C Freeman, Sanjay Agrawal, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is the leading preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Stopping smoking can reduce this harm and many people would like to stop. There are a number of medicines licenced to help people quit globally, and e-cigarettes are used for this purpose in many countries. Typically treatments work by reducing cravings to smoke, thus aiding initial abstinence and preventing relapse. More information on comparative effects of these treatments is needed to inform treatment decisions and policies...
September 12, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gerben Hulsegge, Pieter Coenen, Gregg M Gascon, Manisha Pahwa, Birgit Greiner, Ciarán Bohane, Imelda S Wong, Juha Liira, Rachel Riera, Daniela V Pachito
BACKGROUND: Shift work is associated with insufficient sleep, which can compromise worker alertness with ultimate effects on occupational health and safety. Adapting shift work schedules may reduce adverse occupational outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of shift schedule adaptation on sleep quality, sleep duration, and sleepiness among shift workers. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and eight other databases on 13 December 2020, and again on 20 April 2022, applying no language restrictions...
September 11, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sofia Re Mason, Melina L Willson, Sam J Egger, Jane Beith, Rachel F Dear, Annabel Goodwin
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer associated with shorter survival and a higher likelihood of the cancer returning. In early TNBC, platinum-based chemotherapy has been shown to improve pathological complete response (pCR); however, its effect on long-term survival outcomes has not been fully elucidated and recommendations to include platinum chemotherapy are not consistent in international guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of platinum-based chemotherapy as adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment in people with early triple-negative breast cancer...
September 8, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Thomas D Lloyd, Louise J Geneen, Keeley Bernhardt, William McClune, Scott J Fernquest, Tamara Brown, Carolyn Dorée, Susan J Brunskill, Michael F Murphy, Antony Jr Palmer
BACKGROUND: Concerns regarding the safety and availability of transfused donor blood have prompted research into a range of techniques to minimise allogeneic transfusion requirements. Cell salvage (CS) describes the recovery of blood from the surgical field, either during or after surgery, for reinfusion back to the patient. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of CS in minimising perioperative allogeneic red blood cell transfusion and on other clinical outcomes in adults undergoing elective or non-urgent surgery...
September 8, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kelly Reeve, Begum Irmak On, Joachim Havla, Jacob Burns, Martina A Gosteli-Peter, Albraa Alabsawi, Zoheir Alayash, Andrea Götschi, Heidi Seibold, Ulrich Mansmann, Ulrike Held
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that affects millions of people worldwide. The disease course varies greatly across individuals and many disease-modifying treatments with different safety and efficacy profiles have been developed recently. Prognostic models evaluated and shown to be valid in different settings have the potential to support people with MS and their physicians during the decision-making process for treatment or disease/life management, allow stratified and more precise interpretation of interventional trials, and provide insights into disease mechanisms...
September 8, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Camila Micaela Escobar Liquitay, Luis Garegnani, Virginia Garrote, Ivan Solà, Juan Va Franco
BACKGROUND: Bibliographic databases provide access to an international body of scientific literature in health and medical sciences. Systematic reviews are an important source of evidence for clinicians, researchers, consumers, and policymakers as they address a specific health-related question and use explicit methods to identify, appraise and synthesize evidence from which conclusions can be drawn and decisions made. Methodological search filters help database end-users search the literature effectively with different levels of sensitivity and specificity...
September 8, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Friederike B Haslbeck, Katharina Mueller, Tanja Karen, Joanne Loewy, Joerg J Meerpohl, Dirk Bassler
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth interferes with brain maturation, and subsequent clinical events and interventions may have additional deleterious effects. Music as therapy is offered increasingly in neonatal intensive care units aiming to improve health outcomes and quality of life for both preterm infants and the well-being of their parents. Systematic reviews of mixed methodological quality have demonstrated ambiguous results for the efficacy of various types of auditory stimulation of preterm infants...
September 7, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Chowdhury Sb Jalal, Luz Maria De-Regil, Vanessa Pike, Prasanna Mithra
BACKGROUND: Anaemia affects approximately 1.8 billion people worldwide; over 60% of anaemia cases globally are due to iron deficiency (ID). Iron deficiency and anaemia contribute to the global burden of disease and affect physical and cognitive development in children, and work productivity and economic well-being in adults. Fortification of food with iron, alone or in combination with other nutrients, is an effective intervention to control ID. Condiments and seasonings are ideal food vehicles for iron fortification in countries where they are commonly used...
September 1, 2023: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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