Trends in acute coronary heart disease mortality, morbidity, and medical care from 1985 through 1997: the Minnesota heart survey

P G McGovern, D R Jacobs, E Shahar, D K Arnett, A R Folsom, H Blackburn, R V Luepker
Circulation 2001 July 3, 104 (1): 19-24

BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality continued to decline from 1985 to 1997.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We tabulated CHD deaths (ICD-9 codes 410 through 414) in the Minneapolis/St Paul, Minnesota, area. For 1985, 1990, and 1995, trained nurses abstracted the hospital records of patients 30 to 74 years old with a discharge diagnosis of acute CHD (ICD-9 codes 410 or 411). Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) events were validated and followed for 3-year all-cause mortality. Between 1985 and 1997, age-adjusted CHD mortality rates in Minneapolis/St Paul fell 47% and 51% in men and women, respectively; the comparable declines in US whites were 34% and 29%. In-hospital mortality declined faster than out-of-hospital mortality. The rate of AMI (ICD-9 code 410) hospital discharges declined almost 20% between 1985 and 1995, whereas the discharge rate for unstable angina (ICD-9 code 411) increased substantially. The incidence of hospitalized definite AMI declined approximately 10%, whereas recurrence rates fell 20% to 30%. Three-year case fatality rates after hospitalized AMI decreased consistently by 31% and 41% in men and women, respectively. In-hospital administration of thrombolytic therapy, emergency angioplasty, ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, heparin, and aspirin increased greatly.

CONCLUSIONS: Declining out-of-hospital death rates, declining incidence and recurrence of AMI in the population, and marked improvements in the survival of AMI patients all contributed to the 1985 to 1997 decline of CHD mortality in the Minneapolis/St Paul metropolitan area. The effects of early and late medical care seem to have had the greatest contribution to rates during this time period.

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