Clinical Trial, Phase II
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
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Isatuximab, carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone in patients with newly diagnosed, transplantation-eligible multiple myeloma (SKylaRk): a single-arm, phase 2 trial.

BACKGROUND: Isatuximab is a CD38 monoclonal antibody approved for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. We aimed to evaluate the addition of isatuximab to weekly carfilzomib (K), lenalidomide (R), and dexamethasone (d; Isa-KRd) in transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and stratified maintenance by cytogenetic risk.

METHODS: This single-arm phase 2 trial was done at three cancer centres (two hospitals and a cancer institute) in Boston (MA, USA). Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years and had transplant-eligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and an ECOG performance status of 2 or less. Patients received four 28-day cycles of Isa-KRd, including isatuximab 10 mg/kg intravenously weekly for 8 weeks, then every other week for 16 weeks, and every 4 weeks thereafter; carfilzomib 56 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 (20 mg/m2 for cycle 1 day 1); lenalidomide 25 mg orally on days 1-21; and dexamethasone 20 mg orally the day of and day after all doses of carfilzomib and isatuximab. Consolidation involved either upfront haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) with two additional cycles or deferred HSCT with four additional cycles of treatment. The primary endpoint was complete response after four cycles of treatment. Analyses were by intention-to-treat. All patients who received one dose of study drug were included in the safety analyses. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04430894, and has completed enrolment.

FINDINGS: Between July 31, 2020 and Jan 31, 2022, 50 patients were enrolled. Median age was 59 years (range 40-70), 54% (27 of 50 patients) were male, and 44 (88%) were White. 46% (23 of 50) of patients had high-risk cytogenetics. Median follow-up was 26 months (IQR 20·7-30·1). 32% (16 of 50 patients) achieved a complete response after four cycles. The overall response rate (ORR) was 90% (45 patients) and 78% (39 patients) achieved a very good partial response (VGPR) or better. After completion of consolidation, 58% (29 patients) achieved a complete response; the ORR was 90% (45 patients) and 86% (43 patients) achieved a VGPR or better. The most common grade 3 or 4 side-effects (≥two patients) included neutropenia (13 [26%] of 50 patients), elevated alanine aminotransferase (six [12%] patients), fatigue (three [6%] patients), thrombocytopenia (three [6%] patients), acute kidney injury (two [4%] patients), anaemia (two [4%] patients), and febrile neutropenia (two [4%] patients). Grade 1-2 infusion-related reactions were seen in 20% (ten patients), with none grade 3. Grade 1-2 hypertension was seen in 14% (seven patients) with one grade 3 (one [2%] patient). There were two deaths assessed as unrelated to treatment.

INTERPRETATION: Although the study did not achieve the prespecified complete response threshold, Isa-KRd induced deep and durable responses in transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. The treatment proved safe and consistent with similar regimens in this setting.

FUNDING: Amgen, Sanofi, and Adaptive.

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