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Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome Among Patients Receiving Anti-Retro-Viral Treatment in A Tertiary Hospital, Central Ethiopia: Unmatched Case-Control Study.

PURPOSE: Scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). This success is challenged by the constellation of interrelated metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Given the changing ART regimens and schedules, increasing patient age and methodological limitations, existing evidence regarding the determinants of MetS remains inconclusive. Therefore, in the current study, we aimed to identify the determinants of MetS in patients receiving ART at a tertiary hospital in central Ethiopia.

PATIENT AND METHODS: We conducted an unmatched case-control study that included 393 patients with a case-to-control ratio of 1 to 2. Data were collected by interviewing patients, reviewing charts, physical examinations, and laboratory testing. The data were entered into Epi-Info version 7.2 and analyzed using SPSS version 26. A binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify the determinants of MetS. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the strength of the association between MetS and its determinants. Statistical significance was set at p-value < 0.05.

RESULTS: In this study, higher odds of developing MetS were identified among patients aged 40-60 years (AOR 3.75; 95% CI: 1.66-8.49) and those older than 60 years (AOR 6.18; 95% CI: 2.12-17.95) than among those aged < 40 years. Similarly, higher odds were observed among patients who frequently consumed animal source foods than among those who consumed cereals or vegetables (AOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.03-3.63), those who had HIV lipodystrophy (AOR 1.73; 95% CI: 1.05-2.86), those who were treated with stavudine (AOR 3.08; 95% CI: 1.89-5.04), and those who were treated with zidovudine (AOR 1.71, 95% CI: 1.02-2.88) compared to their counterparts.

CONCLUSION: Older age, diet from animal sources, exposure to zidovudine or stavudine, and the presence of lipodystrophy were independent determinants of MetS.

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