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Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia/multifocal leukoplakia in patients with and without oral sub mucous fibrosis.

BACKGROUND: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) are established as oral potentially malignant disorders. Dual pathology of the two conditions is not commonly encountered in clinical practice. This study aims to present a case series of multifocal leukoplakia in patients with and without OSF to outline the clinical behavior and challenges in the management of this high-risk group in clinical practice.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed cases of six Indian patients (four with OSF) managed over a period of 5.5 to 13 years at the Government Dental College, Nagpur. Patient data consisting of age, gender, medical history, habits, clinical findings, and biopsy reports were recorded at the initial visit. During follow-up visits, the clinicopathological data were reassessed. When surgical intervention failed to arrest the disease or when surgery was contraindicated metronomic therapy with Folitrax 15 mg once a week and Celecoxib 100mg twice daily was initiated.

RESULTS: All patients developed PVL after the initial pathology diagnosis of OSF or oral leukoplakia. Initial lesions were either homogenous or non-homogenous leukoplakia. All patients developed multiple recurrences, regional or systemic metastasis. Despite thorough interventions, the patients died of, or with the disease.

CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of two or more oral potentially malignant disorders poses challenges in patient management and possibly presents a higher risk of malignant transformation. More clinical trials are necessary to assess the benefits of metronomic therapy for patients diagnosed with aggressive PVL concurrently found with OSF.

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