Urinary Tract Infections: Core Curriculum 2024.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are some of the most commonly encountered infections in clinical practice. Accurate diagnosis and evidence-based treatment of UTIs will lead to better clinical care for many patients and limit unnecessary antibiotic use. Urinalysis and urine cultures are helpful tools in the diagnosis of UTIs; however, it is important to recognize their limitations. Differentiating between asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and true UTI is important because antibiotics are unnecessary in most nonpregnant patients with ASB and can even potentially cause harm if prescribed. Choice and duration of antibiotics varies across the spectrum of UTI syndromes such as acute uncomplicated cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis, and catheter-associated UTIs. The treatment approach also depends on patients' degree of immunosuppression and their genitourinary anatomy. Therefore, patients with urological obstruction or kidney transplants may require a specialized and multidisciplinary management approach. For individuals prone to frequent UTIs, some preventative measures can be utilized, yet there is often not a "one size fits all" approach.
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