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Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776422/targeting-the-s1p-receptor-signaling-pathways-as-a-promising-approach-for-treatment-of-autoimmune-and-inflammatory-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Bisera Stepanovska, Andrea Huwiler
The past two decades of intense research have revealed a key role of the sphingolipid molecule sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in regulating multiple physiological and pathophysiological processes including cell proliferation and survival, cell migration, inflammatory mediator synthesis and tissue remodeling. S1P mainly acts through five high-affinity G protein-coupled S1P receptors, which are ubiquitously expressed and mediate a complex network of signaling in a cell type dependent manner. S1P receptors have become an attractive pharmacological target to interfere with S1P-mediated cellular responses, which contribute to various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases...
February 15, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772463/secoiridoids-of-olive-and-derivatives-as-potential-coadjuvant-drugs-in-cancer-a-critical-analysis-of-experimental-studies
#2
REVIEW
Marilena Celano, Valentina Maggisano, Saverio Massimo Lepore, Diego Russo, Stefania Bulotta
Phenolic secoiridoids from olive, including oleocanthal, oleuropein and related derivatives, are bioactive natural products with documented anticancer activities, that have mainly been attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. This review summarizes the results of the preclinical studies on the natural secoiridoids of olive used as single agents or in combination with other chemotherapeutics against cancer cells. The molecular targets of their action are described. A critical analysis of the importance of the experimental studies in view of the possible use in humans is also discussed...
February 14, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772462/non-alcoholic-liver-disease-and-gut-bacteria
#3
LETTER
Antonio Ponzetto, Natale Figura, Piero Riva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772461/the-paraventricular-thalamic-nucleus-a-key-hub-of-neural-circuits-underlying-drug-addiction
#4
REVIEW
Kuikui Zhou, Yingjie Zhu
Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive, out-of-control drug use and the appearance of negative somatic and emotional consequences when drug access is prevented. The limited efficacy of treatment urges researchers toward a deeper understanding of the neural mechanism of drug addiction. Brain circuits that regulate reward and motivation are considered to be the neural substrate of drug addiction. An increasing body of literature indicates that the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) could serve as a key node in the neurocircuits that control goal-directed behaviors...
February 14, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769097/prss23-knockdown-inhibits-gastric-tumorigenesis-through-eif2-signaling
#5
Bing Han, Yang Yang, Jiang Chen, Xingxing He, Nonghua Lv, Runwei Yan
PRSS23 is a newly discovered serine protease that has been associated with tumor progression in various types of cancers. Our previous study showed PRSS23 is down-regulated obviously in Hedgehog pathway blocked gastric cancer cells. However, the correlation between PRSS23 and tumor progression of gastric cancer remains unclear. Here, the role and mechanism of PRSS23 in tumor progression of gastric cancer were determined. PRSS23 protein levels were significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues compared with the paired adjacent normal gastric mucosa tissues...
February 12, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742900/the-therapeutic-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-human-diseases-a-focus-on-the-recent-insights-into-autophagy
#6
REVIEW
Samira Barangi, A Wallace Hayes, Russel Reiter, Gholamreza Karimi
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a class of non-coding RNA with ≥200 nucleotides in length which are involved as critical regulators in various cellular processes. LncRNAs contribute to the development and progression of many human diseases. Autophagy is a key catabolic process which helps to maintain the cellular homeostasis through the decay of damaged or unwanted proteins and dysfunctional cytoplasmic organelles. The impairment of the autophagy process has been described in numerous diseases. The autophagy possess can have either a protective or a detrimental role in cells depending on its activation status and other cellular conditions...
February 8, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742899/recent-advances-in-the-neurobiology-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-review-of-possible-mechanisms-underlying-an-effective-pharmacotherapy
#7
REVIEW
Natalia Malikowska-Racia, Kinga Salat
Recent progress in the field of neurobiology supported by clinical evidence gradually reveals the mystery of human brain functioning. So far, many psychiatric disorders have been described in great detail, although there are still plenty of cases that are misunderstood. These include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is a unique disease that combines a wide range of neurobiological changes, which involve disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland axis, hyperactivation of the amygdala complex, and attenuation of some hippocampal and cortical functions...
February 8, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739035/brain-permeant-and-impermeant-inhibitors-of-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-suppress-the-development-and-maintenance-of-paclitaxel-induced-neuropathic-pain-without-producing-tolerance-physical-dependence-in-vivo-and-synergize-with-paclitaxel-to-reduce-tumor-cell
#8
Richard A Slivicki, Zhili Xu, Sonali S Mali, Andrea G Hohmann
Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors suppresses pathological pain but also produces unwanted side effects, including tolerance and physical dependence. Inhibition of fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the major enzyme catalyzing the degradation of anandamide (AEA), an endocannabinoid, and other fatty-acid amides, suppresses pain without unwanted side effects typical of direct CB1 agonists. However, FAAH inhibitors have failed to show efficacy in several clinical trials suggesting that the right partnership of FAAH inhibition and pathology has yet to be identified...
February 7, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738127/granulocyte-death-mediated-by-specific-antibodies-in-intravenous-immunoglobulin-ivig
#9
REVIEW
Stefanie Graeter, Hans-Uwe Simon, Stephan von Gunten
Granulocytes are key effector cells of the innate immune system that cause substantial by-stander tissue damage in a broad range of inflammatory disorders. Specific antibodies with the potential to regulate granulocyte survival are present in polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations and may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects of high-dose IVIG therapy. Here, we discuss idiosyncratic characteristics of antibodies to FAS and Siglecs contained in IVIG pertaining to granulocyte death regulation and highlight implications for research and clinical practice...
February 6, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735803/chronic-vortioxetine-treatment-improves-the-responsiveness-to-an-acute-stress-acting-through-the-ventral-hippocampus-in-a-glucocorticoid-dependent-way
#10
Paola Brivio, Giulia Corsini, Marco Andrea Riva, Francesca Calabrese
Vortioxetine is a novel multimodal antidepressant approved in 2013 by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). It combines the modulation of serotonin receptors activity with the inhibition of serotonin transporter (SERT). In this study, we aim at establishing the effect of chronic vortioxetine treatment (5 mg/kg twice/daily) in modulating neuroplastic mechanisms as well as hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) activity under basal condition and in response to an acute challenge...
February 5, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735802/ginsenoside-20-s-protopanaxadiol-inhibits-triple-negative-breast-cancer-metastasis-in-vivo-by-targeting-egfr-mediated-mapk-pathway
#11
Bo Peng, Rong He, Qihua Xu, Yifei Yang, Qin Hu, Hongping Hou, Xinmin Liu, Jianrong Li
Metastasis is the primary cause of cancer recurrence and cancer related mortality in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). EGFR overexpression is in 50-75% TNBC and EGFR-mediated signaling has potential as an attractive therapeutic target in some specific subtypes of breast cancer due to its significant association with tumor metastasis and poor prognosis. Therefore, identification of promising therapeutic strategies targeting EGFR with higher specificity toward cancer metastasis is urgently needed. 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), one of the major active metabolites from Panax ginseng, has been widely reported to possess pleiotropic anticancer activities in various cancers...
February 5, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30731197/a-molecular-view-of-the-function-and-pharmacology-of-acid-sensing-ion-channels
#12
REVIEW
Sabrina Vullo, Stephan Kellenberger
The pH in the different tissues and organs of our body is kept within tight limits. Local pH changes occur, however, temporarily under physiological conditions, as for example in synapses during neuronal activity. In pathological situations, such as in ischemia, inflammation, and tumor growth, long-lasting acidification develops. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are low pH-activated Na+ -permeable ion channels that are widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. ASICs act as pH sensors, leading to neuronal excitation when the pH drops...
February 4, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721731/letter-to-the-editor-optimization-of-multidrug-combinations-challenges-and-perspectives-in-complex-disorders
#13
LETTER
Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721730/allosteric-modulation-of-sigma-receptors-by-bh3-mimetics-abt-737-abt-263-navitoclax-and-abt-199-venetoclax
#14
John R Lever, Emily A Fergason-Cantrell
ABT-737, ABT-263 (Navitoclax) and ABT-199 (Venetoclax) are under intensive preclinical and clinical investigation as treatments for hematologic and other malignancies. These small molecules mimic pro-death B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) Homology 3 (BH3) domain-only proteins. They also bear a structural resemblance to certain sigma (σ) receptor ligands. Moreover, the Bcl-2 and σ receptor protein families are both located primarily at the endoplasmic reticulum, mediate cell death and survival through protein - protein interactions, and physically associate...
February 2, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711419/formyl-peptide-receptor-1-signalling-promotes-experimental-colitis-in-mice
#15
Rosanna Di Paola, Roberta Fusco, Enrico Gugliandolo, Ramona D'Amico, Marika Cordaro, Daniela Impellizzeri, Mauro Perretti, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by intricate immune cell interactions with tissue cells and such cross-talks can become deregulated. The formyl peptide receptor 1 (Fpr1) is expressed by both immune and stromal cells including epithelial cells. We evaluated the development of the physiopathology of the DNBS induced colitis in Fpr1 KO mice on the C57BL/6 genetic background compared to C57BL/6 genetic background animals. We have assessed both macroscopic and histological markers of the diseased, together with the immunohistochemical and molecular changes...
January 31, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30708051/neuropharmacology-pharmacogenetics-and-pharmacogenomics-of-aggression-the-zebrafish-model
#16
REVIEW
Murilo S de Abreu, Ana C V V Giacomini, Rafael Genario, Bruna E Dos Santos, Larissa G da Rosa, Konstantin A Demin, Edina Wappler-Guzzetta, Allan V Kalueff
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly utilized as a powerful new model organism in neurobehavioral research. Aggression is a common symptom of many CNS disorders, has some genetic deterinants and can be modulated pharmacologically in humans and animal model species. Mounting evidence suggests zebrafish as a useful tool to study neurobiology of aggression, and its pharmacological and genetic regulation. Here, we discuss mechanisms of zebrafish aggression and their pharmacological, pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic models, as well as recent developments and existing challenges in this field...
January 29, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30695734/diabetic-nephropathy-the-regulatory-interplay-between-epigenetics-and-micrornas
#17
REVIEW
Himanshu Sankrityayan, Yogesh A Kulkarni, Anil Bhanudas Gaikwad
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is still one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease despite the emergence of different therapies to counter the metabolic, hemodynamic and fibrotic pathways, implicating a prominent role of genetic and epigenetic factors in its progression. Epigenetics is the study of changes in the expression of genes which may be inheritable and does not involve a change in the genome sequence. Thrust areas of epigenetic research are DNA methylation and histone modifications. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), particularly microRNAs (miRNAs) control the expression of genes via post-transcriptional mechanisms...
January 26, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690071/management-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-patients-undergoing-liver-transplantation
#18
REVIEW
Valeria Grancini, Veronica Resi, Eva Palmieri, Giuseppe Pugliese, Emanuela Orsi
Diabetes is a common feature in cirrhotic individuals both before and after liver transplantation and negatively affects prognosis. Certain aetiological agents of chronic liver disease and loss of liver function per se favour the occurrence of pre-transplant diabetes in susceptible individuals, whereas immunosuppressant treatment, changes in lifestyle habits, and donor- and procedure-related factors contribute to diabetes development/persistence after transplantation. Challenges in the management of pre-transplant diabetes include the profound nutritional alterations characterizing cirrhotic individuals and the limitations to the use of drugs with liver metabolism...
January 25, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30682425/tgf-%C3%AE-in-pancreatic-disease-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-potential
#19
REVIEW
Qi Zhou, Shilin Xia, Fangyue Guo, Fenglin Hu, Zhizhou Wang, Yujia Ni, Tianfu Wei, Dong Shang, Hong Xiang
Pancreatic disease, such as acute pancreatitis (AP), chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic cancer (PC), is a common gastrointestinal disease resulting in the development of local and systemic complications with a significant risk of death. A host of studies on pancreatic disease have been conducted over the past few decades, however, the pathogenesis remains obscure, and there is still a lack of effective treatment options. Recently, there are emerging evidences that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) exerts controversial function in apoptosis, inflammatory response and carcinogenesis, which makes its roles more complex in the pathogenesis of pancreas-associated disease...
January 22, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30682424/intriguing-relationship-between-antihypertensive-therapy-and-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Marijana Tadic, Cesare Cuspidi, Evgeny Belyavskiy, Guido Grassi
Arterial hypertension is the most frequent cardiovascular risk factor in the cancer patients. Anti-cancer therapy very often induces arterial hypertension and the treatment with antihypertensive medications is inevitable. Additionally, anti-cancer therapy frequently induces cardiotoxicity that has been treated or even could be prevented by use of antihypertensive medications - primarily angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers. The association between antihypertensive drugs and cancer is matter of large debate in the last several years because of the conflicting results from available studies ranging from adverse to beneficial effect of various antihypertensive classes...
January 22, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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