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European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765509/benefits-of-improved-air-quality-on-aging-lungs-impacts-of-genetics-and-obesity
#1
Anke Hüls, Dorothee Sugiri, Michael J Abramson, Barbara Hoffmann, Holger Schwender, Katja Ickstadt, Ursula Krämer, Tamara Schikowski
INTRODUCTION: The beneficial effect of improving air quality on lung function in the elderly remains unclear. We examined associations between decline in air pollutants and lung function and effect modifications by genetics and Body Mass Index (BMI) in elderly German women. METHODS: Data were analysed from the prospective Study on the influence of Air pollution on Lung function, Inflammation and Aging (SALIA; N=601). Spirometry was conducted at baseline (1985-1994; 55 years), in 2007-2010 and in 2012-2013...
February 14, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765508/a-randomised-placebo-controlled-study-of-omipalisib-pi3k-mtor-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#2
Pauline T Lukey, Stephen A Harrison, Shuying Yang, Yim Man, Beverley F Holman, Alaleh Rashidnasab, Gabrielle Azzopardi, Michael Grayer, Juliet K Simpson, Philippe Bareille, Lyn Paul, Hannah V Woodcock, Richard Toshner, Peter Saunders, Philip L Molyneaux, Kris Thielemans, Frederick J Wilson, Paul F Mercer, Rachel C Chambers, Ashley M Groves, William A Fahy, Richard P Marshall, Toby M Maher
PI3 Kinases (PI3Ks) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) play a role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Omipalisib (GSK2126458) is a potent inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR.A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, repeat dose escalation, experimental medicine study of omipalisib in subjects with IPF was conducted (NCT01725139) to test safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). Omipalisib was dosed, at 0.25 mg, 1 mg and 2 mg twice per day (BID) for approximately eight days in 4 cohorts of 4 subjects randomised 3:1 to receive omipalisib or placebo (two cohorts received 2 mg BID)...
February 14, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765507/changing-prevalence-of-current-asthma-and-inhaled-corticosteroid-treatment-in-the-uk-population-based-cohort-2006-2016
#3
C I Bloom, S Saglani, J Feary, D Jarvis, J K Quint
BACKGROUND: Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in the UK, yet we have incomplete knowledge on the prevalence of current disease, treatment and exacerbations. METHODS: We used UK electronic healthcare records, 2006-2016, to estimate the prevalence of current asthma by year, gender and age (<5, 5-11, 12-17, 18-24, 25-54 and ≥55 years), and the proportion prescribed inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and additional asthma-therapy, treated for exacerbations and other asthma care markers...
February 14, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765506/exercise-intolerance-in-comorbid-copd-heart-failure-the-role-of-impaired-aerobic-function
#4
Alcides Rocha, Flavio F Arbex, Priscila A Sperandio, Frederico Mancuso, Mathieu Marillier, Anne-Catherine Bernard, Maria Clara N Alencar, Denis E O Donnell, J Alberto Neder
Impaired aerobic function is a potential mechanism of exercise intolerance in patients with combined cardiorespiratory disease. We investigated the pathophysiological and sensory consequences of a low Δ O2 uptake (V̇O2 )/Δ work rate (WR) relationship during incremental exercise in patients with coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and systolic heart failure (HF).After clinical stabilisation, 51 COPD-HF patients performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test to symptom limitation...
February 14, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765505/artificial-intelligence-outperforms-pulmonologists-in-the-interpretation-of-pulmonary-function-tests
#5
Marko Topalovic, Nilakash Das, Pierre-Régis Burgel, Marc Daenen, Eric Derom, Christel Haenebalcke, Rob Janssen, Huib A M Kerstjens, Giuseppe Liistro, Renaud Louis, Vincent Ninane, Christophe Pison, Marc Schlesser, Piet Vercauter, Claus F Vogelmeier, Emiel Wouters, Jokke Wynants, Wim Janssens
The interpretation of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) to diagnose respiratory diseases is built on expert opinion which relies on the recognition of patterns and clinical context for the detection of specific diseases. In the study, we aimed to explore the accuracy and inter-rater variability of pulmonologists when interpreting PFTs and compared it against that of artificial intelligence (AI)-based software which was developed and validated in more than 1500 historical patient cases.120 pulmonologists from 16 European hospitals evaluated 50 cases comprising with PFT and clinical information resulting in 6000 independent interpretations...
February 14, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765504/newborn-dna-methylation-childhood-lung-function-and-the-risks-of-asthma-and-copd-across-the-life-course
#6
Herman T den Dekker, Kimberley Burrows, Janine F Felix, Lucas A Salas, Ivana Nedeljkovic, Jin Yao, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Carlos Ruiz-Arenas, N Amin, Mariona Bustamante, Dawn L DeMeo, A John Henderson, Caitlin G Howe, Marie-France Hivert, M Arfan Ikram, Johan C de Jongste, Lies Lahousse, Pooja R Mandaviya, Joyce B van Meurs, Mariona Pinart, Gemma C Sharp, Lisette Stolk, André G Uitterlinden, Josep M Anto, Augusto A Litonjua, Carrie V Breton, Guy G Brusselle, Jordi Sunyer, George Davey Smith, Caroline L Relton, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Liesbeth Duijts
RATIONALE: We aimed to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in cord blood DNA associated with childhood lung function, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) across the life course. METHODS: We meta-analyzed epigenome-wide data of 1688 children from five cohorts to identify cord blood DMRs and their annotated genes, in relation to Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), and Forced Expiratory Flow at 75% of FVC (FEF75) at ages 7-13 years...
February 14, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765503/the-electronic-asthma-management-system-eams-improves-primary-care-asthma-management
#7
Samir Gupta, Courtney Price, Gina Agarwal, David Chan, Sanjeev Goel, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Alan G Kaplan, Gerald Lebovic, Muhammad Mamdani, Sharon E Straus
A high prevalence of suboptimal asthma control is attributable to known evidence-practice gaps. We developed a computerised clinical decision support system (the Electronic Asthma Management System - eAMS) to address major care gaps and sought to measure its impact on care in adults with asthma.This was a 2-year interrupted time series study of usual care (year 1) versus eAMS (year 2) at 3 Canadian primary care sites. We included asthma patients aged ≥16 years receiving an asthma medication within the last 12 months...
February 14, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728208/adjunctive-vitamin-d-in-tuberculosis-treatment-meta-analysis-of-individual-participant-data
#8
David A Jolliffe, Davaasambuu Ganmaa, Christian Wejse, Rubhana Raqib, Md Ahsanul Haq, Nawal Salahuddin, Peter K Daley, Anna P Ralph, Thomas R Ziegler, Adrian R Martineau
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adjunctive vitamin D in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) treatment have yielded conflicting results. Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis could identify factors explaining this variation. METHODS: We meta-analysed IPD from RCTs of vitamin D in patients receiving antimicrobial therapy for PTB. Primary outcome was time to sputum culture conversion. Secondary outcomes were time to sputum smear conversion, mean 8-week weight and incidence of adverse events...
February 6, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728207/development-of-a-prognostic-model-of-respiratory-insufficiency-or-death-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
Jason Ackrivo, John Hansen-Flaschen, E Paul Wileyto, Richard J Schwab, Lauren Elman, Steven M Kawut
A clinically useful model to prognose onset of respiratory insufficiency in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) would inform disease interventions, communication, and clinical trial design. We aimed to derive and validate a clinical prognostic model for respiratory insufficiency within six months of presentation to an outpatient ALS clinic.We used multivariable logistic regression and internal cross-validation to derive a clinical prognostic model using a single-center cohort of 765 ALS patients who presented between 2006 and 2015...
February 6, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728206/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-and-surgical-embolectomy-for-high-risk-pulmonary-embolism
#10
LETTER
Fabio Ius, Marius M Hoeper, Christine Fegbeutel, Christian Kühn, Karen Olsson, Nurbol Koigeldiyev, Igor Tudorache, Gregor Warnecke, Jörg Optenhöfel, Jakob Ono Puntigam, Andreas Schäfer, Bernhard C Meyer, Jan B Hinrichs, Johann Bauersachs, Axel Haverich, Serghei Cebotari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728205/eosinophil-derived-il-13-promotes-emphysema
#11
Alfred D Doyle, Manali Mukherjee, William E LeSuer, Tyler B Bittner, Saif M Pasha, Justin J Frere, Joseph L Neely, Jake A Kloeber, Kelly P Shim, Sergei I Ochkur, Terence Ho, Sarah Svenningsen, Benjamin L Wright, Matthew A Rank, James J Lee, Parameswaran Nair, Elizabeth A Jacobsen
The inflammatory responses in chronic airway diseases leading to emphysema are not fully defined. We hypothesised that lung eosinophilia contributes to airspace enlargement in a mouse model, and emphysema in patients with COPD.A transgenic mouse model of chronic type 2 pulmonary inflammation ( I5/hE2 ) was used to examine eosinophil-dependent mechanisms leading to airspace enlargement. Human sputum samples were collected for translational studies examining eosinophilia and MMP-12 levels in patients with chronic airways disease...
February 6, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728204/easy-to-build-and-affordable-cpap-device-for-adult-patients-in-low-income-countries
#12
LETTER
Ramon Farré, Josep M Montserrat, Gorka Solana, David Gozal, Daniel Navajas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705130/serum-levels-of-hyaluronic-acid-are-associated-with-copd-severity-and-predict-survival
#13
Eleni Papakonstantinou, Ioannis Bonovolias, Michael Roth, Michael Tamm, Desiree Schumann, Florent Baty, Renaud Louis, Branislava Milenkovic, Wim Boersma, Bram Stieltjes, Konstantinos Kostikas, Francesco Blasi, Joachim G Aerts, Gernot G U Rohde, Alicia Lacoma, Antoni Torres, Tobias Welte, Daiana Stolz
Ηyaluronic acid (HA) and its degradation products play an important role in lung pathophysiology and airway remodelling in COPD.We investigated if HA and its degrading enzyme hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL-1) are associated with COPD severity and outcome.Serum HA was assessed in a discovery cohort of 80 COPD patients at stable state and exacerbations. HA, HYAL-1 and HYAL-1 enzymatic activity were evaluated at stable state, exacerbations and 4 weeks after exacerbations, in 638 COPD patients, from the PROMISE validation cohort...
January 31, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705129/exhaled-air-dispersion-during-high-flow-nasal-cannula-therapy-versus-cpap-via-different-masks
#14
David S Hui, Benny K Chow, Thomas Lo, Owen T Y Tsang, Fanny W Ko, Susanna S Ng, Tony Gin, Matthew T V Chan
QUESTION: High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is an emerging therapy for respiratory failure but the extent of exhaled air dispersion during treatment is unknown. We examined exhaled air dispersion during HFNC therapy versus CPAP on a human patient simulator (HPS) in an isolation room with 16 air changes·h-1 . METHODS: HPS was programmed to represent different severity of lung injury. CPAP was delivered at 5-20 cmH2 O via nasal pillows (Respironics Gel or ResMed Swift FX) or oronasal mask (Quattro, ResMed)...
January 31, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705128/ventricular-mass-as-a-prognostic-imaging-biomarker-in-incident-pah
#15
LETTER
Catherine E Simpson, Rachel L Damico, Todd M Kolb, Stephen C Mathai, Rubina M Khair, Takahiro Sato, Khalil Bourji, Ryan J Tedford, Stefan L Zimmerman, Paul M Hassoun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705127/exaggerated-bmp4-signalling-alters-human-airway-basal-progenitor-cell-differentiation-to-cigarette-smoking-related-phenotypes
#16
Wu-Lin Zuo, Jing Yang, Yael Strulovici-Barel, Jacqueline Salit, Mahboubeh Rostami, Jason G Mezey, Sarah L O'Beirne, Robert J Kaner, Ronald G Crystal
Airway remodelling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) originates, in part, from smoking-induced changes in airway basal stem/progenitor cells (BC). Based on the knowledge that the bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) influences epithelial progenitor function in the developing and adult mouse lung, we hypothesised that BMP4 signalling may regulate the biology of adult human airway BC relevant to COPD. BMP4 signalling components in human airway epithelium were analysed at the mRNA and protein levels, and the differentiation of BC was assessed using the BC expansion and air-liquid interface models in the absence/presence of BMP4, BMP receptor inhibitor and/or siRNAs against BMP receptors and downstream signalling...
January 31, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705126/chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-commonly-complicates-treated-pulmonary-tuberculosis-with-residual-cavitation
#17
Iain D Page, Rosemary Byanyima, Sharath Hosmane, Nathan Onyachi, Cyprian Opira, Malcolm Richardson, Richard Sawyer, Anna Sharman, David W Denning
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) complicates treated pulmonary tuberculosis, with high 5-year mortality. We measured CPA prevalence in this group.398 Ugandans with treated pulmonary tuberculosis underwent clinical assessment, chest X-ray and Aspergillus -specific IgG measurement. 285 were resurveyed 2 years later, including CT thorax in 73 with suspected CPA. CPA was diagnosed in patients without active tuberculosis who had raised Aspergillus- specific IgG, radiological features of CPA and chronic cough or haemoptysis...
January 31, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679190/dynamic-hyperinflation-impairs-daily-life-activity-in-asthma
#18
A N van der Meer, K de Jong, A Hoekstra-Kuik, E H Bel, A Ten Brinke
INTRODUCTION: Dynamic hyperinflation has been documented in asthma, yet its impact on overall health and daily life activities is unclear. We assessed the prevalence of dynamic hyperinflation in moderate to severe asthma and its relationship with the scores of a set of specific and general respiratory health questionnaires. METHODS: 77 non-smoking asthma patients (GINA step 4-5) were consecutively recruited and completed 5 questionnaires: Asthma Control Questionnaire, Clinical COPD Questionnaire, St...
January 24, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679189/introduction-to-precision-medicine-in-copd
#19
Janice M Leung, Ma'en Obeidat, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Don D Sin
Although there has been a tremendous growth in our understanding of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its pathophysiology over the past several decades, the pace of therapeutic innovation has been extremely slow. COPD is now widely accepted as a heterogeneous condition with multiple phenotypes and endotypes. Thus, there is a pressing need for COPD care to move from the current "one-size-fits-all" approach to precision medicine that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each patient...
January 24, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30655285/the-adamts13-vwf-axis-is-dysregulated-in-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#20
Michael Newnham, Kieron South, Marta Bleda, William R Auger, Joan A Barberà, Harm Bogaard, Katherine Bunclark, John E Cannon, Marion Delcroix, Charaka Hadinnapola, Luke S Howard, David Jenkins, Eckhard Mayer, Choo Ng, Christopher J Rhodes, Nicholas Screaton, Karen Sheares, Michael A Simpson, Mark Southwood, Li Su, Dolores Taboada, Matthew Traylor, Richard C Trembath, Sofia S Villar, Martin R Wilkins, John Wharton, Stefan Gräf, Joanna Pepke-Zaba, Michael Laffan, David A Lane, Nicholas W Morrell, Mark Toshner
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an important consequence of pulmonary embolism (PE) that is associated with abnormalities in haemostasis. We investigated the ADAMTS13-VWF axis in CTEPH, including its relationship to disease severity, inflammation, ABO groups and ADAMTS1 3 genetic variants.ADAMTS13 and VWF plasma antigen levels were measured in patients with CTEPH (n=208), chronic thromboembolic disease without pulmonary hypertension (CTED; n=35), resolved PE (n=28), idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (n=30) and healthy controls (n=68)...
January 17, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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