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Evaluation of acquired and hereditary risk factors for the development of thromboembolism in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Although the contribution of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) to thrombolembolism in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is well known, there is not enough data on the contribution of various hereditary thrombophilic factors. In this study, we aimed to determine acquired and hereditary thrombophilic factors in adult patients with SLE. A total of 93 SLE patients (87 women and 6 men) were included. Data on clinical, demographic and laboratory characteristics, and disease activity scores (SLEDAI) of the patients were evaluated. The patients were analyzed with a screen, including lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), antithrombin III, protein C, protein S, and homocysteine levels; factor V Leiden ( FVL ), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ) and prothrombin G20210A gene mutations. A total of 23 thromboembolic events were reported in 17 (18.3%) of the patients. The frequency of pregnancy complications and SLEDAI scores were significantly higher in SLE patients who had a thromboembolism event ( P  < 0.05). Thromboembolism was detected in 12 (32.4%) of 37 patients with positive aPL antibody and 5 (8.9%) of 56 patients with negative aPL antibody ( P  = 0.006). In addition, thromboembolism developed in 11 (32.3%) of 34 lupus anticoagulant-positive patients and 6 (10.1%) of 59 lupus anticoagulant-negative patients ( P  = 0.012). Moreover, protein C levels were significantly lower in patients who developed thromboembolism ( P  < 0.05). Patients with and without thromboembolism were similar in terms of genetic thrombophilia factors ( MTHFR A1298C, MTHFR C677T, FVL and Prothrombin G20210A ) ( P  > 0.05). In conclusion, in the current study, some acquired (aPL, lupus anticoagulant and cCL IGG) and hereditary (protein C deficiency) thrombophilic factors were shown to be associated with the development of thrombosis in SLE patients. However, the effect of other hereditary factors on the development of thromboembolism could not be demonstrated. According to the data of this study, genetic screening seems inappropriate in terms of the risk of thromboembolism in patients with SLE.

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