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Impaired reverse cholesterol transport is associated with changes in fatty acid profile in children and adolescents with abdominal obesity.

Journal of Nutrition 2023 September 15
BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Plasma fatty acids display a complex network of both pro and antiatherogenic effects. High density lipoproteins (HDL) carry out the antiatherogenic pathway called reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), which involves cellular cholesterol efflux (CCE), and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activities.

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to characterize RCT and its relation to fatty acids present in plasma in pediatric abdominal obesity.

METHODS: Seventeen children and adolescents with abdominal obesity and 17 healthy controls were studied. Anthropometric parameters were registered. Glucose, insulin, lipid levels, CCE employing THP-1 cells, LCAT and CETP activities, plus fatty acids in apo B-depleted plasma were measured.

RESULTS: The obese group showed a more atherogenic lipid profile, plus lower CCE (Mean±Standard Deviation) (6±2 vs. 7±2%; p<0.05) and LCAT activity (11±3 vs. 15±5 umol/dL.h; p<0.05). With respect to fatty acids, the obese group showed higher myristic (1.1±0.3 vs. 0.7±0.3; p<0.01) and palmitic acids (21.5±2.8 vs 19.6±1.9; p<0.05) in addition to lower linoleic acid (26.4±3.3 vs. 29.9±2.6; p<0.01). Arachidonic acid correlated with CCE (r=0.37; p<0.05), myristic acid with LCAT (r=-0.37; p<0.05), palmitioleic acid with CCE (r=-0.35; p<0.05), linoleic acid with CCE (r=0.37; p<0.05), lauric acid with LCAT (r=0.49; p<0.05), myristic acid with LCAT (r=-0.37; p<0.05) ecoisatrienoic acid with CCE (r=0.40; p<0.05) and lignoseric acid with LCAT (r=-0.5; p<0.01).

CONCLUSION: Children and adolescents with abdominal obesity presented impaired RCT, which was associated with modifications in proinflammatory fatty acids, such as palmitoleic and myristic, thus contributing to increased cardiovascular risk.

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