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Journal of Nutrition

Christopher R Sudfeld, Emily R Smith
Recent data from an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of 17 randomized control trials including >100,000 women living in low- and middle-income countries found that multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) in pregnancy reduced the risk of low birth weight, preterm birth, and being born small for gestational age. Further, MMS reduced the risk of neonatal and infant mortality for females, and there was no evidence of increased risk among the 26 subgroups examined. The 2016 WHO antenatal care guidelines, which were released before the IPD meta-analysis, did not universally recommend MMS, noting: "There is some evidence of additional benefit … but there is also some evidence of risk...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Kate J Bowen, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Sheila G West, Jennifer A Fleming, Philip W Connelly, Benoît Lamarche, Patrick Couture, David J A Jenkins, Carla G Taylor, Peter Zahradka, Shatha S Hammad, Jyoti Sihag, Xiang Chen, Valérie Guay, Julie Maltais-Giguère, Danielle Perera, Angela Wilson, Sandra Castillo San Juan, Julia Rempel, Peter J H Jones
BACKGROUND: Novel oils high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and low in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are an alternative to partially hydrogenated oils high in trans-unsaturated fatty acids. There is widespread use of high-MUFA oils across the food industry; however, limited knowledge of their cardiovascular impact exists. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of diets containing canola oil, high-oleic acid canola oil (HOCO), and a control oil blend (diet formulated to emulate a Western fat profile) on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins (apos), as secondary outcomes of the trial...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Zahra Farahnak, Julia Lévy-Ndejuru, Paula Lavery, Hope A Weiler
BACKGROUND: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) is an n-3 (ω-3) fatty acid known for beneficial effects on body composition. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test the dose response of lean and fat mass to DHA in healthy growing female rats. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (7 wk at baseline; n = 12/diet) were randomly assigned to receive a control (AIN-93M; 60 g soybean oil/kg diet) or experimental diet for 10 wk. Experimental diets contained 0...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Katherine M Delaney, Ronnie Guillet, Robert E Fleming, Yuan Ru, Eva K Pressman, Francoise Vermeylen, Elizabeta Nemeth, Kimberly O O'Brien
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the fetus prioritizes iron for hemoglobin production over delivery to tissues. However, few studies have evaluated the interrelations between hemoglobin and multiple iron status biomarkers in umbilical cord blood. A full understanding is needed of how these parameters influence each other within cord blood to fully interpret iron and hematologic status at birth. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the determinants of neonatal hemoglobin and assessed the interrelations between hemoglobin, serum iron status indicators, and serum iron regulatory hormones in healthy neonates...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Michael A Pitino, Sharon Unger, Alain Doyen, Yves Pouliot, Susanne Aufreiter, Debbie Stone, Alex Kiss, Deborah L O'Connor
BACKGROUND: When mother's milk is insufficient, pasteurized human donor milk (DM) is the recommended supplement for hospitalized very-low-birth-weight infants. The current method of pasteurization (Holder, 62.5°C, 30 min) negatively affects heat-sensitive nutrients and bioactive proteins. OBJECTIVES: Objectives of this study were to compare changes in DM composition after thermal pasteurization (Holder and flash-heating) and nonthermal methods [UV-C irradiation and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)]...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Ilka Rasch, Solvig Görs, Armin Tuchscherer, John K Htoo, Björn Kuhla, Cornelia C Metges
BACKGROUND: DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyric acid (DL-HMTBA), an L-methionine (L-Met) hydroxyl analogue, has been suggested to be a dietary L-Met source. How dietary DL-HMTBA compared with L-Met affects whole-body L-Met kinetics in growing individuals is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We determined to what extent DL-HMTBA supplementation of an L-Met-deficient diet affects whole-body L-Met and L-cysteine (L-Cys) kinetics, protein synthesis (PS), and the L-Met incorporation rate in liver protein (L-MetInc) compared with L-Met and DL-Met supplementation in a piglet model...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Harriet Okronipa, Mary Arimond, Rebecca R Young, Charles D Arnold, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Solace M Tamakloe, Helena J Bentil, Maku E Ocansey, Sika M Kumordzie, Brietta M Oaks, Kathryn G Dewey
BACKGROUND: Whether consuming sweet foods early in life affects sweet food preferences and consumption later in childhood is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that exposure to a slightly sweet lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) early in life would not increase preference for or consumption of sweet items at preschool age. METHODS: We followed up children who had participated in a randomized trial in Ghana in which LNS was provided to 1 group of women during pregnancy and 6 mo postpartum and to their infants from ages 6-18 mo (LNS group)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Uzoma S Ikonne, Philip H Vann, Jessica M Wong, Michael J Forster, Nathalie Sumien
BACKGROUND: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a thiolic antioxidant that is thought to increase cellular glutathione (GSH) by augmenting the concentration of available cysteine, an essential precursor to GSH production. Manipulating redox status can affect brain function, and NAC intake has been associated with improving brain function in models of neurodegenerative diseases. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine if short-term dietary supplementation with NAC could ameliorate functional impairment associated with aging...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Fayth L Miles, Jan Irene C Lloren, Ella Haddad, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Synnove Knutsen, Joan Sabate, Gary E Fraser
BACKGROUND: Differences in food composition, nutrient intake, and various health outcomes have been reported for vegetarians and non-vegetarians in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether biomarkers of dietary intake also differed between individuals classified as vegetarian (vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) and non-vegetarians based on patterns of consumption of meat, dairy, and eggs...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Patrik Hansson, Kirsten B Holven, Linn K L Øyri, Hilde K Brekke, Anne S Biong, Gyrd O Gjevestad, Ghulam S Raza, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Magne Thoresen, Stine M Ulven
Background: Postprandial lipemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Dairy products differ in nutrient content and food matrix, and little is known about how different dairy products affect postprandial triglyceride (TG) concentrations. Objective: We investigated the effect of meals with similar amounts of fat from different dairy products on postprandial TG concentrations over 6 h in healthy adults. Methods: A randomized controlled cross-over study was performed on 47 subjects (30% men), with median (25th-75th percentile) age of 32 (25-46) y and body mass index of 23...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Carles Ariza, Francesca Sánchez-Martínez, Gemma Serral, Sara Valmayor, Olga Juárez, María Isabel Pasarín, Conxa Castell, Luis Rajmil, María José López
Background: Childhood obesity is becoming a serious problem, and prevention programs are needed. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, after 1 y, the effectiveness of a multicomponent, school-based obesity intervention program. Methods: This intervention, conducted in Barcelona, Spain, was a quasi-experimental obesity primary prevention intervention targeting schoolchildren aged 9-10 y. Participants were assigned to an intervention group (IG) (1464 students) or to a comparison group (CG) (1609 students)...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Sika M Kumordzie, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Rebecca R Young, Brietta M Oaks, Solace M Tamakloe, Maku E Ocansey, Harriet Okronipa, Elizabeth L Prado, Kathryn G Dewey
Background: In the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS)-DYAD-Ghana trial, prenatal small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) had a positive effect on birth weight. Birth weight may be inversely related to blood pressure (BP) later in life. Objectives: We examined the effect of the intervention on BP at 4-6 y of age, and maternal and child factors related to BP. Methods: The iLiNS-DYAD-Ghana study was a partially double-blind, randomized controlled trial which assigned women (n = 1320) ≤20 weeks of gestation to daily supplementation with: 1) iron and folic acid during pregnancy and 200 mg Ca for 6 mo postpartum , 2) multiple micronutrients during pregnancy and postpartum, or 3) LNSs during pregnancy and postpartum plus LNSs for infants from 6 to 18 mo of age...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Abeer Al-Mokbel, Glenda Courtney-Martin, Rajavel Elango, Ronald O Ball, Paul B Pencharz, Christopher Tomlinson
Background: The requirement for dietary tryptophan in school-age children has never been empirically derived. Objective: The objective of our study was to determine the tryptophan requirement of school-age children using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Methods: Volunteer healthy school-age children, between 8 and 12 y, were enrolled and the oxidation of l-[13C]-phenylalanine to 13CO2 measured in response to graded intakes of dietary tryptophan...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Santu Ghosh, Srishti Sinha, Tinku Thomas, Harshpal S Sachdev, Anura V Kurpad
Anemia in Indian women continues to be highly prevalent, and is thought to be due to low dietary iron content. The high risk of dietary iron deficiency is based on the Indian Council of Medical Research recommendation of 21 mg/d, but there is a need for a secure and transparent determination of the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of iron in this population. In nonpregnant, nonlactating women of reproductive age (WRA), the EAR of iron was determined to be 15 mg/d. Applying this value to daily iron intakes among WRA in nationally representative Indian state-based data showed that the median risk of dietary iron deficiency was lower than previously thought (65%; IQR: 48-78%), with considerable heterogeneity between states (range: 25-93%)...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Jaime J Gahche, Kirsten A Herrick, Nancy Potischman, Regan L Bailey, Namanjeet Ahluwalia, Johanna T Dwyer
Background: Limited nationally representative data are available on dietary supplement (DS) use and resulting nutrient exposures among infants and toddlers. Objective: This study evaluated DS use among US infants and toddlers to characterize DS use, estimate nutrient intake from DSs, and assess trends in DS use over time. Methods: Using nationally representative data from NHANES (2007-2014) and trends over time (1999-2014), we estimated prevalence of DS use and types of products used for US infants and toddlers aged <2 y (n = 2823)...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Regan L Bailey, Kevin W Dodd, Jaime J Gahche, Johanna T Dwyer, Alexandra E Cowan, Shinyoung Jun, Heather A Eicher-Miller, Patricia M Guenther, Anindya Bhadra, Paul R Thomas, Nancy Potischman, Raymond J Carroll, Janet A Tooze
The use of dietary supplements (DS) is pervasive and can provide substantial amounts of micronutrients to those who use them. Therefore when characterizing dietary intakes, describing the prevalence of inadequacy or excess, or assessing relations between nutrients and health outcomes, it is critical to incorporate DS intakes to improve exposure estimates. Unfortunately, little is known about the best methods to assess DS, and the structure of measurement error in DS reporting. Several characteristics of nutrients from DS are salient to understand when comparing to those in foods...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Stephanie G Harshman, M Kyla Shea, Xueyan Fu, Michael A Grusak, Donald Smith, Stefania Lamon-Fava, Athan Kuliopulos, Andrew Greenberg, Sarah L Booth
Background: Menaquinone-4 (MK4), a vitamin K metabolite, is converted from phylloquinone through a process that requires intermediates of endogenous cholesterol production. Recent evidence suggests that MK4 is involved in kidney function. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of atorvastatin treatment on MK4 formation in young and old male mice. Methods: C57BL/6 male mice (4-mo-old and 20-mo-old) were randomly assigned to either a diet containing 300 mg atorvastatin/kg with 3 mg phylloquinone/kg or a control diet containing 3 mg phylloquinone/kg for 8 wk...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Emily L Tuthill, Lila A Sheira, Kartika Palar, Edward A Frongillo, Tracey E Wilson, Adebola Adedimeji, Daniel Merenstein, Mardge H Cohen, Eryka L Wentz, Adaora A Adimora, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Lisa Metsch, Margot Kushel, Janet M Turan, Deborah Konkle-Parker, Phyllis C Tien, Sheri D Weiser
Background: Food insecurity and mental health negatively affect the lives of women in the United States. Participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) provided the opportunity to understand the association of food insecurity with depression and mental well-being over time. Objective: We investigated the association between current and persistent food insecurity and depression among women at risk of or living with HIV in the United States. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the WIHS, a prospective cohort study in women at risk of or living with HIV from multiple sites in the United States...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Elizabeth Metallinos-Katsaras
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Dalila Azzout-Marniche, Catherine Chaumontet, Julien Piedcoq, Nadezda Khodorova, Gilles Fromentin, Daniel Tomé, Claire Gaudichon, Patrick C Even
Background: We have reported large differences in adiposity (fat mass/body weight) gain between rats fed a low-fat, high-starch diet, leading to their classification into carbohydrate "sensitive" and "resistant" rats. In sensitive animals, fat accumulates in visceral adipose tissues, leading to the suggestion that this form of obesity could be responsible for rapid development of metabolic syndrome. Objective: We investigated whether increased amylase secretion by the pancreas and accelerated starch degradation in the intestine could be responsible for this phenotype...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
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