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Selection for antimicrobial prophylaxis in emergency and elective transurethral procedures: Susceptibility pattern in Türkiye.

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to determine the most appropriate antimicrobial agents for prophylactic antibiotic use during emergency and elective transurethral procedures.

METHODS: The study was conducted in five hospitals located in five different geographical regions of Türkiye. The microorganism cultured in urine before emergency and elective transurethral procedures in these centers between March 2021 and March 2022 were reviewed retrospectively from the hospital records. Demographic data (age and gender) of the patients, comorbid disorders, previous urological procedures, anomalies of the urogenital tract, use of urethral catheters (permanent or clean intermittent catheterization), cultured microorganisms, and antibiotic susceptibilities were noted. The patients hospitalized or had antibiotics for any reason in the previous 1 month were excluded from the study.

RESULTS: A total of 1450 patients, 742 men (51.2%) and 708 women (48.8%), were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 55.3±19.36 (1-98) years. Diabetes mellitus was evident in 271 (18.7%) patients. The five most common microorgan-isms cultured in urine, in order of frequency, were: ESBL (-) Escherichia coli in 418 (28.8%), ESBL (+) E. coli in 309 (21.3%), Klebsiella pneumonia in 183 (12.6%), Enterococcus faecalis in 124 (8.6%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 89 (6.1%). The susceptibility rates to antimicrobial agents recommended for prophylaxis by the American Urology Association and the European Association of Urology guidelines were found as follows: cefepime 87.1%, ampicillin+sulbactam 84%, TMP-SMX 71.6%, amoxicillin+clavulanate 63.5%, cefoxitin 59%, ceftazidime 58.6%, cefuroxime 43.5%, ceftriaxone 43%, and cefixime 38.4%.

CONCLUSION: We found that currently recommended antimicrobials provide poor coverage for the most common pathogens isolated. Urologists should consider patient-based antibiotic prophylaxis in endoscopic urethral procedures, follow appropriate proto-cols, and consider local antibiotic resistance.

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