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Analysis of Left Ventricular Indexes and Mortality Among Asian Adults With Hemodynamically Significant Chronic Aortic Regurgitation.

JAMA Network Open 2023 March 2
IMPORTANCE: Chronic hemodynamically significant aortic regurgitation (AR) is associated with excess risk of death, yet data for Asian patients are lacking, and whether Asian patients can abide by Western guidelines as to when aortic valve surgery should be performed is unknown.

OBJECTIVE: To assess AR presentation and cutoffs of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), LV end-systolic dimension index (LVESDi), and LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVi) that are associated with risk of death in Asian patients with AR.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This retrospective cohort study included consecutive patients with chronic, moderately severe to severe AR from 3 tertiary referral centers (2 in Japan and 1 in Taiwan) from June 11, 2008, through November 19, 2020, with follow-up through November 11, 2021.

EXPOSURES: Aortic regurgitation severity, graded by a comprehensive integrated approach.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was the association between volume-derived LVEF, LVESDi, and LVESVi and all-cause death (ACD). The secondary outcome was the association of these LV indexes with cardiovascular death (CVD). Clinical and echocardiographic data were analyzed retrospectively. A de novo disk-summation method was used to derive LV volumes and volume-derived LVEF.

RESULTS: Of 1259 patients (mean [SD] age, 64 [17] years; 934 [74%] male), 515 (41%) were Japanese and 744 (59%) were Taiwanese. The median follow-up was 4.1 years (IQR, 1.56-7.24 years). The mean (SD) body surface area was 1.67 (0.21) m2; LVEF, 55% (11%); LVESDi, 24.7 (5.7) mm/m2; LVESVi, 50.1 (28.0) mL/m2; and indexed mid-ascending aorta size, 24.7 (5.5) mm/m2. Aortic valve surgery occurred in 483 patients (38%); 240 patients (19%) died during follow-up. Overall mean (SD) 8-year survival was 74% (2%). Separate multivariate models adjusted for covariates demonstrated independent associations of LVEF, LVESDi, and LVESVi with ACD (LVEF: hazard ratio [HR] per 10%, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70-0.92; P = .002; LVESDi: HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06; P = .002; LVESVi: HR per 10 mL/m2, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.17; P < .001) and CVD (LVEF: HR per 10%, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.56-0.85; P < .001; LVESDi: HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09; P = .01; LVESVi per 10 mL/m2: HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.24; P < .001). In the total cohort, spline curves showed that mortality started to increase for an LVEF of 53% or less, LVESDi of 22 mm/m2 or greater, and LVESVi of 46 mL/m2 or greater for both ACD and CVD. Early surgery was beneficial in 3 strata of LVESDi (<20, 20 to <25, and ≥25 mm/m2) and 2 strata of LVESVi (<46 and ≥46 mL/m2).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This multicenter cohort study of Asian patients with hemodynamically significant AR found cutoff values of LVEF, LVESDi, and LVESVi that were associated with increased risk of death. These findings suggest that Western guidelines seem applicable in Asian patients and, most importantly, that indexed LV parameters with a lower cutoff could be used in discriminating patients with excess mortality risk.

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