An increased burden of rare exonic variants in NRXN1 microdeletion carriers is likely to enhance the penetrance for autism spectrum disorder

Cinzia Cameli, Marta Viggiano, Magali J Rochat, Alessandra Maresca, Leonardo Caporali, Claudio Fiorini, Flavia Palombo, Pamela Magini, Renée C Duardo, Fabiola Ceroni, Maria C Scaduto, Annio Posar, Marco Seri, Valerio Carelli, Paola Visconti, Elena Bacchelli, Elena Maestrini
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 2021 January 21
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by a complex polygenic background, but with the unique feature of a subset of cases (~15%-30%) presenting a rare large-effect variant. However, clinical interpretation in these cases is often complicated by incomplete penetrance, variable expressivity and different neurodevelopmental trajectories. NRXN1 intragenic deletions represent the prototype of such ASD-associated susceptibility variants. From chromosomal microarrays analysis of 104 ASD individuals, we identified an inherited NRXN1 deletion in a trio family. We carried out whole-exome sequencing and deep sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in this family, to evaluate the burden of rare variants which may contribute to the phenotypic outcome in NRXN1 deletion carriers. We identified an increased burden of exonic rare variants in the ASD child compared to the unaffected NRXN1 deletion-transmitting mother, which remains significant if we restrict the analysis to potentially deleterious rare variants only (P = 6.07 × 10-5 ). We also detected significant interaction enrichment among genes with damaging variants in the proband, suggesting that additional rare variants in interacting genes collectively contribute to cross the liability threshold for ASD. Finally, the proband's mtDNA presented five low-level heteroplasmic mtDNA variants that were absent in the mother, and two maternally inherited variants with increased heteroplasmic load. This study underlines the importance of a comprehensive assessment of the genomic background in carriers of large-effect variants, as penetrance modulation by additional interacting rare variants to might represent a widespread mechanism in neurodevelopmental disorders.

Full Text Links

We have located open access full text paper links.


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"