[Sex specific trends of sudden cardiac death and acute myocardial infarction: results of the population-based KORA/MONICA-Augsburg register 1985 to 1998]

H Löwel, C Meisinger, M Heier, A Hörmann, B Kuch, J Gostomzyk, W Koenig
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 2002 November 2, 127 (44): 2311-6

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Myocardial infarction (MI) is the main single cause of death in adult populations. For the MONICA Augsburg population, MI-morbidity, mortality, and 28-day case fatality and their determinants were assessed by gender, and suggestions for an intensified acute care program were presented.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1985 to 1998, 13 499 25- to 74-year-old MI cases (9537 men, 3962 women) were registered; 7873 cases (5300 men, 2573 women) died within 28 days. Cardiac deaths were identified by regional health departments; causes of death were validated by the last treating physician and the coroner (response > 90 %). Hospitalized patients were interviewed about history and circumstances of the acute event; treatment data were abstracted from hospital charts. The prehospital phase, the first and the 2nd to 28thday after hospitalization were analyzed separately.

RESULTS: MI-morbidity per 100 000 population declined from 560 to 397 MI cases in men and from 161 to 145 in women; mortality decreased from 317 to 232 in men and from 101 to 96 in women. The decline in men was due to decreasing incident and recurrent MI whereas in women it was only due to a reduction of recurrent MI. One third died before hospitalization, mainly at home. Case fatality (CF) on the first day in hospital increased. In 24 hour survivors, evidence based treatment increased considerably, and was accompanied by decreasing 28-day-CF from 13.0 % to 8.4 % in men, and from 12.5 % to 10.7 % in women.

CONCLUSION: Aggressive risk factor management and education of patients with cardiovascular risk factors concerning acute symptoms and the use of the emergency system will consequently improve pre-hospital and 28-day survival of the population.

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