Optimization of high-performance blue organic light-emitting diodes containing tetraphenylsilane molecular glass materials

Li-Hsin Chan, Rong-Ho Lee, Chia-Fen Hsieh, Hsiu-Chih Yeh, Chin-Ti Chen
Journal of the American Chemical Society 2002 June 5, 124 (22): 6469-79
Molecular glass material (4-(5-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-2-oxadiazolyl)phenyl)triphenylsilane (Ph(3)Si(PhTPAOXD)) was used as the blue light-emitting material in the fabrication of high-performance organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In the optimization of performance, five types of OLEDs were constructed from Ph(3)Si(PhTPAOXD): device I, ITO/NPB/Ph(3)Si(PhTPAOXD)/Alq(3)/Mg:Ag, where NPB and Alq(3) are 1,4-bis(1-naphylphenylamino)biphenyl and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum, respectively; device II, ITO/NPB/Ph(3)Si(PhTPAOXD)/TPBI/Mg:Ag, where TPBI is 1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)benzene; device III, ITO/Ph(2)Si(Ph(NPA)(2))(2)/Ph(3)Si(PhTPAOXD)/TPBI/Mg:Ag, where Ph(2)Si(Ph(NPA)(2))(2) is bis(3,5-bis(1-naphylphenylamino)phenyl)-diphenylsilane, a newly synthesized tetraphenylsilane-containing triarylamine as hole-transporting material; device IV, ITO/Ph(2)Si(Ph(NPA)(2))(2)/NPB/Ph(3)Si(PhTPAOXD)/TPBI/Mg:Ag; device V, ITO/CuPc/NPB /Ph(3)Si(PhTPAOXD)/Alq(3)/LiF/Al, where CuPc is Cu(II) phthalocyanine. Device performances, including blue color purity, electroluminescence (EL) intensity, current density, and efficiency, vary drastically by changing the device thickness (100-600 A of the light-emitting layer) and materials for hole-transporting layer (NPB and/or Ph(2)Si(Ph(NPA)(2))(2)) or electron-transporting material (Alq(3) or TPBI). One of the superior OLEDs is device IV, showing maximum EL near 19 000 cd/m(2) with relatively low current density of 674 mA/cm(2) (or near 3000 cd/m(2) at 100 mA/cm(2)) and high external quantum efficiency of 2.4% (1.1 lm/W or 3.1 cd/A). The device possesses good blue color purity with EL emission maximum (lambda(max)(EL)) at 460 nm, corresponding to (0.16, 0.18) of blue color chromaticity on CIE coordinates. In addition, the device is reasonably stable and sustains heating over 100 degrees C with no loss of luminance on the basis of the annealing data for device V. Formation of the exciplex at the interface of NPB and Ph(3)Si(PhTPAOXD) layers is verified by EL and photoluminescence (PL) spectra studies on the devices with a combination of different charge transporting materials. The EL due to the exciplex (lambda(max)(EL) at 490-510 nm) can be properly avoided by using a 200 A layer of Ph(3)Si(PhTPAOXD) in device I, which limits the charge-recombination zone away from the interface area.

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